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19640 accounting question ACC 202 Milestone Two
19627

Instructions

Assignment 2: Innovation and Communication Presentation

Listed below are the names of some of the world’s top technology-related innovators. They have also been called leaders, entrepreneurs, disrupters, or good old-fashioned trouble-makers. They have gone against the odds, rattling stale industries to build new ones. Recognize their names? Not likely, though you may instantly recognize their product, technology, or scientific inventions, which have made headlines. However, their success would not be possible without the effective management of team members. For this assignment, you are required to choose two people from the list and create a PowerPoint presentation.

First, choose two leaders from the list below:

  • Caleb Chung
  • Cory Booker
  • Craig Venter
  • Dan Olschwang
  • Diane Greene
  • Hjalmar Winbladh
  • Jeremy Stoppelman
  • Mark Gorton
  • Russell Simmons
  • Sunil Shaunak

Now, respond to the following:

  • Utilize your research and identify the methods these innovators or leaders are using to communicate through technology in an effort to remain relevant in their industries.
  • Explain how technology has advanced each of their businesses, leading to growth.
  • Determine if innovative products, such as Google X, iWatch, or the new Cardboard Bike, can be linked to transformational or transactional leadership. Defend your position.
  • Self-managed teams are often used to hide inventions from public view. Utilizing your research, identify ways managers and project leaders working under constraints can accomplish this.

Develop a 4–6-slide presentation in PowerPoint format. Include detailed speaker notes in your presentation. Utilize at least two scholarly sources (in addition to your textbook) to complete your research, referencing sources within the text and at the end in a reference list. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M4_A2.ppt.

Make sure you write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship through accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

M4 Assignment 2 Submission

 

 

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Instructions

Assignment 2: Innovation and Communication Presentation

Listed below are the names of some of the world’s top technology-related innovators. They have also been called leaders, entrepreneurs, disrupters, or good old-fashioned trouble-makers. They have gone against the odds, rattling stale industries to build new ones. Recognize their names? Not likely, though you may instantly recognize their product, technology, or scientific inventions, which have made headlines. However, their success would not be possible without the effective management of team members. For this assignment, you are required to choose two people from the list and create a PowerPoint presentation.

First, choose two leaders from the list below:

·         Caleb Chung

·         Cory Booker

·         Craig Venter

·         Dan Olschwang

·         Diane Greene

·         Hjalmar Winbladh

·         Jeremy Stoppelman

·         Mark Gorton

·         Russell Simmons

·         Sunil Shaunak

Now, respond to the following:

·         Utilize your research and identify the methods these innovators or leaders are using to communicate through technology in an effort to remain relevant in their industries.

·         Explain how technology has advanced each of their businesses, leading to growth.

·         Determine if innovative products, such as Google X, iWatch, or the new Cardboard Bike, can be linked to transformational or transactional leadership. Defend your position.

·         Self-managed teams are often used to hide inventions from public view. Utilizing your research, identify ways managers and project leaders working under constraints can accomplish this.

Develop a 4–6-slide presentation in PowerPoint format. Include detailed speaker notes in your presentation. Utilize at least two scholarly sources (in addition to your textbook) to complete your research, referencing sources within the text and at the end in a reference list. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M4_A2.ppt.

Make sure you write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship through accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

By the due date assigned, deliver your assignment to the Submissions Area.

Assignment Components

Proficient

Maximum Points

Describe two leaders and their chosen businesses.

[CO: 1, 6]

The description of the two leaders chosen is clear and logical. There are many interesting facts included regarding the businesses. Reliable resources are utilized.

12

Identify the methods these innovators or leaders are using to communicate through technology in an effort to remain relevant in their industries.

[CO: 1, 3, 6]

An accurate identification of the methods the innovators/leaders are using to communicate through technology in an effort to remain relevant is provided. Examples are included. Reliable resources are utilized.

20

Explain how technology has advanced each of their businesses and led to growth.

[CO: 1, 6]

The explanation regarding how technology has advanced each of their businesses and led to growth is clear and accurate.

16

Determine if innovative products, such as Google X, iWatch, or the new Cardboard Bike can be linked to transformational or transactional leadership. Defend your rationale.

[CO: 1, 2, 6]

An accurate determination of whether innovative products, such as Google X, iWatch, or the new Cardboard Bike can be linked to transformational or transactional leadership, is given. The rationale provided is logical and relevant. Examples and scholarly research are utilized.

16

Identify ways managers and project leaders working under constraints can accomplish hiding inventions from the public.

[CO: 1, 5, 6]

The identification of ways managers and project leaders working under constraints can accomplish hiding inventions from the public is accurate. Logical examples are provided using scholarly resources.

16

Write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship through appropriate and accurate representation and attribution of sources (i.e. APA); and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Use of scholarly sources aligns with specified assignment requirements.

[CO_O]

Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship through appropriate and accurate representation and attribution of sources (i.e. APA); and displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Use of scholarly sources aligned with specified assignment requirements.

 

 

Assignment 2: Innovation and Communication Presentation
19600

Laura Lagreid

Laura Lagreid

YesterdayLocal: Sep 25 at 9:37pm<br>Course: Sep 25 at 10:37pm

Manage Discussion Entry

There are certainly pressures in the workplace that invite unethical behavior.  According to Carucci, R. (2016), the following situations create conditions that are ripe for ethical violations, "It is psychologically unsafe to speak up... There is excessive pressure to reach unrealistic performance targets...Conflicting goals provoke a sense of unfairness...A positive example isn't being set."  These are just a few examples of situations that can create an environment where people who would normally make ethical choices might be tempted to make decisions that are less than ethical.  Environments where employees don't feel safe expressing their concerns, where leadership has modeled unethical behavior, and where injustice and competition are the norm, present challenges and pressure in the workplace. 

Employees may feel that they need to cover up behaviors that are unethical, or look the other way when they notice a breach in ethics.  They may feel so much pressure to meet performance goals or feel that there is unfairness in how they are treated compared to their coworkers that they are tempted to behave dishonestly or unethically. I would say that in most cases, workplace environments influence people's behavior rather than people being innately unethical. This does not excuse unethical behavior by any means, but I think that people who are generally ethical people can be swayed when workplace pressures present challenging situations. When a person goes to work every day in an environment where leadership directly or indirectly promotes unethical behavior, it is that much easier for them to feel justified in behaving unethically. 

That being said, every employee gets to decide every day whether or not they are going to choose the high road. There are many ramifications to behaving unethically, whether "justified" or not, and it can have long term effects that negatively impact employability. Additionally, employees can find themselves in legal trouble as a result of unethical behavior, regardless of the reason why they behaved the way they did.   Pressures definitely abound, but the bottom line is that ethical behavior is paramount in business and crucial in maintaining the trust and satisfaction of employees as well as consumers.

 

Carucci, R. (2016). Why ethical people make unethical choices. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/12/why-ethical-people-make-unethical-choices (Links to an external site.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Samantha Bosco

SundayLocal: Sep 23 at 1:37pm<br>Course: Sep 23 at 2:37pm

Manage Discussion Entry

Regarding ethical behavior, there seem to be a handful of pressures that could exist in the workplace that could lead to unethical behavior. This includes the work environment feeling unsafe for employees to speak up, excessive goal setting that puts too much pressure on employees and/or are conflicting and cause resentment, and positive examples not happening (Carucci, 2006). If people feel like they cannot speak up, unethical events aren't going to get reported and will continue to happen. Also, if management/leadership is writing off the incident if someone does speak up, employees won't speak up next time. Sometimes, too, unrealistic goals can bread unethical behavior to reach that goal (i.e. fibbing prices on things, or like when Whole Foods was charging more for the hot bar weights than the food actually weighed). And certainly, if leadership is not following ethical behaviors why should the employees? Ideally, one would hope people would act ethical for their own individual morals, but sometimes that is not the case.

 

Personally, there have been three incidents from my husband's work that I would deem unethical. Two were with the owner keeping parts of something that a customer bought (and then denying it was in the box when the customer called and asked about it) and then making an employee change something because it cost too much to do it the way it should have been done. And the third was an employee who opens the store show up two hours later and basically didn't care because, he said, the owner wasn't going to fire him.

 

___________

Carucci, R. (2016, Dec 16). Why Ethical People Make Unethical Choices. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/12/why-ethical-people-make-unethical-choices (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. 

 

Need 1-2 quality post paragraph about this post(file attach) with 1-2 reference
19582

I need by this evening 6pm central time.  Please show work for all your calculations. I have attached Q2 and Q4 please verify work and update if incorrect. I have to show all work.  

 

2. Calculate the cost per minute for each type of employee.

3. Allocate overhead costs to each level of service using the appropriate cost drivers

4. Calculate total costs per patient and price per patient at each level of care

Edit question's body

 

For the exclusive use of R. James, 2018.

~Iv£y I Publishing

W16558

ASANTE TEACHING HOSPITAL: ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING

Melissa Jean and Courtney Young wrote this case solely to provide material for class discussion. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality.

This publication may not be transmitted, photocopied, digitized or otherwise reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission of the copyright holder. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Ivey Business School, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, N6G ON1; (t) 519.661.3208; (e) [email protected]; www.iveycases.com.

Copyright © 2016, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation

Version: 2016-09-14

In August 2015, Courtney Young had only two weeks left in her internship at Asante Teaching Hospital (As ante) , a prestigious not-for-profit hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa, to organize the cost data she had gathered from staff interviews into clear recommendations for the chief executive officer (CEO). The hospital's maternity ward competitors had begun offering bundled pricing for natural births, and Young wondered if Asante should do the same. In order to calculate the costs of the service, Young planned to employ both activity-based and time-driven activity-based costing techniques. With this information, Young would be prepared to present the results of her analysis and recommendations for a pricing strategy to the CEO.

ASANTE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Asante had served its community for 40 years, and was the top-ranked hospital in the region for surgery, trauma, neonatal care, and teaching, as evidenced by its status as the official emergency facility for visiting presidents and prime ministers. Asante had 274 beds, employed 1,652 staff, and served over 22,000 patients each year with an annual budget of over R378 million.'

The hospital received 100 per cent of its funding from a private foundation, and was governed by a board of directors. Because Asante received no government support, patients paid for their services through a combination of insurance coverage and out-of-pocket payments. Ifpatients were unable to afford services, they could apply for coverage under Asante's Patient Welfare Program. This program was jointly funded by the foundation, donations, and any hospital surpluses. The charitable mission of the foundation was to improve living conditions and opportunities for millions of people, without regard to race or religion.

Despite Asante's not-for-profit status, it operated like a competitive enterprise whose revenue figure was comprised of cost recovery from patients and their insurers. As a not-for-profit organization, Asante's challenge was to extract maximum benefits for each dollar of annual funding from the foundation. Examples of these benefits included more doctors learning at a higher level, and advances in eye surgery that created greater benefit for those suffering from cataracts. Quantifying these metrics objectively (even soft ones such as "better") was an important part of the challenge for the organization.

1 R = ZAR = South African rand; all currency amounts are in R unless otherwise specified; USD$1 = R12.69 on August 1,2015.

This document is authorized for use only by Regina James in Strategic Cost Management - 2018 Fall taught byYONG GYO LEE, University of Houston from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019.


 

For the exclusive use of R. James, 2018.

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Asante's CEO was a chartered professional accountant, and was recruited in 2013 from a for-profit hospital in California, where he had earned a reputation for disciplined cost control. This skill set appealed to the board because it had the potential to broaden the number of positive patient outcomes through astute cost management.

THE ENVIRONMENT

Location

Johannesburg had a population of 4.4 million in the city itself, 7.8 million including the metropolitan area, and 10.3 million with the outer suburbs and townships.? The city's unusual history had left vast segments of rich and poor citizens, but growth in the middle class had been strong in the decades since the end of Apartheid.' The city and townships were economically varied, but with an average gross domestic product ofR249,900,4 Johannesburg residents' wealth was higher than that of any other area in Africa. In particular, the city's middle class had grown rapidly, which meant that many residents could afford levels of health care their parents had never imagined.

Although the buying power of Johannesburg residents had increased, only 20 per cent of South Africans had private health insurance coverage. Government spending on health care comprised less than half of total health expenditure. Approximately 70 per cent of all doctors and most specialists worked only in the private sector; the remaining 30 per cent served the public sector.'

A Competitive Landscape

Competing hospitals in the region operated on a for-profit basis, so they were able to raise capital from investors to expand and earn profits from operations to pay dividends. By contrast, Asante's not-for-profit model meant that it needed to survive independently-any surplus from one department was used to offset care in another department. Competition was stiff in the health care industry, and as the population's wealth grew, so did the health care marketplace.

Competitors generally offered cheaper services with fewer variations in price, but some argued that these organizations provided a lower quality of care and fewer perks in terms of comfort, such as enhanced privacy for mothers. The maternity ward pricing and services offered by competitors for natural births without complications varied across the city (see Exhibit 1). All but Johannesburg Hospital offered bundled pricing for labour with no complications.

Hospitals in the best sections of the city tended to have the newest facilities and the highest prices. St. Luke's Hospital was housed in a modern building and was located in the affluent suburb of Sandt on. In sharp contrast, Johannesburg Women's Hospital and Metro Hospital were located in low-income areas. All competitors except St. Luke's were configured for efficiency, with four patients per room, which rendered them less appealing to the growing demand for privacy among maternity ward patients. Privacy was a core driver of perceived luxury, and Asante was the only hospital that offered single rooms to patients for an additional fee.

2 Statistics South Africa, Census 2011 Statistical Release-P0301.4, October 30, 2012, accessed January 24, 2016, www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P03014/P030142011.pdf.

3 A former system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the governing party from 1948 to 1994. 4 Joseph Parilla, Jesus Leal Trujillo, Alan Berube, and Tao Ran, "Global Metro Monitor 2014: An Uncertain Recovery", The Brookings Institution, 2014, accessed January 24, 2016, www.brookings.edu/research/reports2/2015/01/22-global-metro­monitor.

5 World Health Organization, Bridging the Gap in South Africa 88, no. 11 (November 201 0): 797-876, accessed May 25,2016, www.who.inUbulletin/volumes/88/11/10-021110/en/.

This document is authorized for use only by Regina James in Strategic Cost Management - 2018 Fall taught byYONG GYO LEE, University of Houston from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019.


 

For the exclusive use of R. James, 2018.

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While Asante's higher prices could be justified by its premium level of care, insurance providers often scrutinized and debated its long bills before mothers could be discharged. These situations put significant financial strain on patients, undermining Asante's commitment to the best patient experience.

INSURANCE COVERAGE

The Patient Perspective

Given the lack of government-sponsored health care, one of the first priorities of families ascending to a stable middle-class income level was the purchase (often through payroll deduction) of private health insurance. Like fire and auto insurance, health insurance required consumers to pay a steady monthly premium even if there were no claims. When an accident, fire, or illness did occur, policy holders were still responsible for some portion of the cost, often referred to as the deductible or out-of-pocket portion. This meant that patients, though insured, were still sensitive to price and were worried about unexpectedly high bills. Seventy per cent of Asante's patients were covered by private health insurance, which typically reimbursed the patients for up to 70 per cent of the cost of care received. The billing procedure at discharge could be overwhelming for new parents, who were often already nervous about their new baby.

The Hospital Perspective

Management had an ongoing struggle with insurance providers to receive full payment for Asante' s premium level of care and patient comfort. Asante included every supply item on the invoice, which was one reason for Asante's lengthy patient bills. Insurance providers naturally appreciated low costs, but also preferred bundled pricing because of its simplicity.

THE BILLING SYSTEM

The existing invoicing system billed Asante's patients for the specific services and supplies used in their particular situation. Since patient needs varied widely (even beyond the simplistic distinction between "with complications" and "without complications"), expectant parents at Asante had no certainty regarding the cost of a birth. Prices at Asante ranged from R13,912 to R19,917 for a natural birth." These costs were broken down for the patients in dizzying detail upon final discharge, which could be overwhelming for some patients. Some new parents were forced to wait for hours at discharge while their bill was being meticulously compiled and vetted by the insurance providers. The stress of anticipation and the disappointment that their birth cost more than expected was often upsetting to parents, even when much of the cost was covered by insurance. Three broad categories of care were provided in the maternity ward, from no complications (Level I) to most complications (Level 3). Complications could range from prolonged labour (Level 2 complication) to fetal distress (Level 3 complication) (see Exhibit 2).

THE TASK

Before the end of her internship, Young needed to recommend a pricing strategy for the natural birth maternity ward services at Asante. The options included a single bundled price for all natural birth deliveries, three bundled prices (for each of the three different levels of care), or the status quo.

6 Caesarean delivery and aftercare prices were moderately higher. This case focuses solely on the cost for natural childbirth.

This document is authorized for use only by Regina James in Strategic Cost Management - 2018 Fall taught byYONG GYO LEE, University of Houston from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019.


 

For the exclusive use of R. James, 2018.

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To begin her analysis, Young determined the total overhead of the maternity ward by identifying cost drivers and applying those drivers to the total hospital overhead costs (see Exhibit 3). Given her understanding of the operations, she believed that utilities, rent, housekeeping, laundry, information technology, and dining hall expenses would vary with the length of stay. With the extra time involved, she thought that the general and administrative expenditures would be driven by the amount of time the registration clerk used to process the patient's paperwork.

Total staff costs for the maternity ward (see Exhibit 4) were based on employees working a standard 42- hour, five-day work week, taking an average of eight personal leave days and six sick days per year, and twelve days of holidays. Each employee participated in weekly training for an average of two hours per week. The only exceptions were residents who worked 80 hours per week, but were still entitled to the same number of personal leave days, sick days, holidays, and employee training. The chief financial officer indicated that benefits and taxes added an additional 23 per cent to these costs (see Exhibit 5).

ACTION REQUIRED

In order to finalize her pricing recommendation, Young needed to assign costs to each level, and also consider incorporating a markup to help the hospital cover any unexpected costs. She thought a 20 per cent markup would be reasonable. With this information, she would build her presentation to the CEO, which would include a review of the total costs for each level of delivery, as well as her pricing recommendation.

This document is authorized for use only by Regina James in Strategic Cost Management - 2018 Fall taught byYONG GYO LEE, University of Houston from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019.


 

For the exclusive use of R. James, 2018.

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EXHIBIT 1: MATERNITY WARD COMPETITOR INFORMATION

 

Asante

Johannesburg

Johannesburg

Metro

St. Luke's

 

Teaching

Women's

Hospital

Hospital

Hospital

 

Hospital

Hospital

 

 

 

Average Days in

3

2

3

3

2

Ward

Obstetrician

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Services

Paediatrician

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Services

Midwife

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Services

Baby

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Accommodation

Postnatal Care

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Average Price

16,915

5,271*

Not Available

7,906

13,177

Note: * Not a bundled price. Source: Company documents.

EXHIBIT 2: SELECTED HOSPITAL INFORMATION

 

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Average Days in

3

3

4

Maternity Ward

Total Natural Birth

4,160

240

390

Maternity Ward Patients

Total Maternity Ward

 

11,975

 

Patients

 

 

Total Maternity Ward

 

30,294

 

Square Feet

 

 

Total Hospital Square

 

455,000

 

Feet

 

 

Note: Patient volumes shown as an annual total. Source: Company documents.

This document is authorized for use only by Regina James in Strategic Cost Management - 2018 Fall taught byYONG GYO LEE, University of Houston from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019.


 

For the exclusive use of R. James, 2018.

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EXHIBIT 3: TOTAL ANNUAL MATERNITY WARD OVERHEAD (IN R)

Overhead Item

Total

Equipment Depreciation General and Administrative Insurance

Utilities

Rent

Housekeeping

Laundry

Information Technology Dining Hall

Security Groundskeeping Marketing

363,672 314,622 233,991

7,454,026 16,195,458 206,241 395,295

6,119,349 856,684 302,076 898,940 105,412

Source: Company documents.

EXHIBIT 4: ANNUAL SALARIES FOR MATERNITY WARD STAFF BY POSITION

Position

Salary

OB/GYN- Total for Team of Three Paediatrician-Total for Team of Four Midwife/Nurse

Resident

Registration Clerk

Practical Nurse

35,403,451 23,477,139 114,557 231,841 9,092

7,122

Note: OB/GYN = Obstetrician/Gynecologist. Source: Company documents.

EXHIBIT 5: BREAKDOWN OF MATERNITY STAFF TIME PER DELIVERY (MINUTES)

Position

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

OB/GYN

30

37

80

Paediatrician

43

55

71

Midwife/Nurse

1,422

1,422

1,600

Resident

225

240

412

Registration Clerk

43

43

60

Practical Nurse

99

99

110

Note: OB/GYN = Obstetrician/Gynecologist.

 

 

 

Source: Company documents.

 

 

 

This document is authorized for use only by Regina James in Strategic Cost Management - 2018 Fall taught byYONG GYO LEE, University of Houston from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019.

Cost Accounting help and review for corrections
19567

1st week of questions to answer

1.       Sarbanes-Oxley prohibits professional service firms from performing services for audit client in which the auditors may find themselves making management decisions or auditing their own firm's work.  Which services are professional service firms prevented from providing to an audit client?

2.       Define professional skepticism and explain its key characteristics.

3.       What does it mean that an auditor should be independent?

4.       What can an auditor do to ensure that are both independent in fact and independent in appearance

5.       How does maintaining one's independence differ from being objective?

6.      What is the difference between statistical sampling versus nonstatistical sampling?

7.       When would statistical sampling be appropriate versus when nonstatistical sampling might be a better methodology?

 

ANSWER EACH QUESTION IN 200 OR MORE WORDS.

USE CITATIONS AND REFERENCES

USE APA GUIDELINES

1st week of questions to answer
19556

This question is without 7th part. With 7th part I will be posting another question.

BA Assignment - 2018 T2
19535

Part 1: Group Potency and Collective Efficacy

(4) academically reviewed articles on Group Potency and Collective Efficacy with appropriate references and use APA format throughout.

Part 2: Group Cohesiveness:

(4) academically reviewed articles on Group Cohesiveness, All of the 4 articles with appropriate references and use APA format throughout.

 

Add headers and Topics you select for the 4 Articles

TEAM 3, need 5 pages with references and APA
19512

Analytical Summaries 

Please, keep in mind that analytical summary CANNOT be just a simple reverberation of the article’s content. Student’s analysis is necessary. 

The summary should be no more than 3 typed pages in APA format, standard margins, 11 point font, double space, and the cover and reference pages do not count toward the page limit. Content and the relevance of the summary is a subject for grading

Towards a Theory of Cultural Influence on the Development of Accounting Systems Internationally

Research has shown that accounting follows different patterns in different parts of the world. There have been claims that national systems are determined by environmental factors. In this context, cultural factors have not been fully considered. This paper proposes four hypotheses on the relationship between identified cultural characteristics and the development of accounting systems, the regulation of the accounting profession and attitudes towards financial management and disclosure. The hypotheses are not operationalized, and empirical tests have not been carried out. They are proposed here as a first step in the development of a theory of cultural influence on the development of accounting systems.

Key words: Accounting policies; Culture; Financial reporting.

This paper explores the extent to which international differences in accounting, with specific reference to corporate financial reporting systems, may be explained and predicted by differences in cultural factors.

While prior research has shown that there are different patterns of accounting internationally and that the development of national systems tends to be a function of environmental factors, it is a matter of some controversy as to the identification of the patterns and influential factors involved (Mueller, 1967; Zeff, 1971; Radebaugh, 1975; Nair and Frank, 1980; Nobes, 1983). In this context the significance of culture does not appear to have been fully appreciated and thus the purpose of this paper is to propose a framework which links culture with the development of accounting systems internationally.

The first section of the paper reviews prior research on international classification and the influence of environmental factors. The second section addresses the significance of the cultural dimension and its application to accounting. The third section proposes a framework and develops hypotheses linking culture with the development of accounting attitudes and systems internationally, based on the cross­cultural work of Hofstede (1980, 1983). In the fourth section some culture area classifications are proposed. They have been developed on a judgmental basis, in the context of combinations of accounting attitudes or 'values' which determine (a) the authority for and enforcement of accounting systems, and (b) the measurement and disclosure characteristics of accounting systems.

S. J. GRAY is a Professor of Accounting, University of Glasgow, Scotland.


 

ABACUS

INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Comparative accounting research has provided an enhanced awareness of the influence of environmental factors on accounting development (e.g .• Mueller, 1967; Zeff, 1971; Radebaugh, 1975; Choi and Mueller, 1984; Nobes, 1984; Arpan and Radebaugh, 1985; Nobes and Parker, 1985). This research has contributed to a growing realization that fundamentally different accounting patterns exist as a result of environmental differences and that international classification differences may have significant implications for international harmonization and the promotion of economic integration. In this regard it has also been suggested that the identification of patterns may be useful in permitting a better understanding of the potential for change, given any change in environmental factors; and that policy-makers may be in a better position to predict problems that a country may be likely to face and identify solutions that may be feasible, given the experience of countries with similar development patterns (e.g., Nobes, 1984).

Research efforts in this area have tended to approach the international classification of accounting systems from two major directions. First, there is the deductive approach whereby relevant environmental factors are identified and, by linking these to national accounting practices, international classifications or development patterns are proposed (e.g., Mueller, 1967, 1968; Nobes, 1983,1984). Second, there is the inductive approach whereby accounting practices are analysed, development patterns identified, and explanations proposed with reference to a variety of economic, social, political, and cultural factors (e.g. Frank, 1979; Nair and Frank 1980).

As regards the deductive approach to accounting classification, the environmental analysis by Mueller (1967) provides a useful starting point. Mueller identified four distinct approaches to accounting development in western nations with market­orientated economic systems. These were:

1.   the macroeconomic pattern - where business accounting interrelates closely with national economic policies;

2.    the microeconomic pattern - where accounting is viewed as a branch of business economics;

3.    the independent discipline approach - where accounting is viewed as a service function and derived from business practice; and

4.    the uniform accounting approach - where accounting is viewed as an efficient means of administration and control.

While all of these approaches were perceived to be closely linked to economic or business factors, a wider set of influences, for example, legal system, political system, social climate were recognized as being relevant, though without precise specification, to accounting development (Mueller, 1968; Choi and Mueller, 1984). Cultural factors received no explicit recognition, however, and were presumably subsumed in the set of environmental factors identified.

Mueller's analysis was adapted and extended by Nobes (1983,1984) who based his classification on an evolutionary approach to the identification of measurement practices in developed Western nations. Nobes adopted a hierarchical scheme of

2


 

A THEORY OF CULTURAL INFLUENCE

classification in an endeavour to provide more subtlety and discrimination to the assessment of country differences. However, similarly to Mueller, no explicit mention was made of cultural factors. A basic distinction between microeconomic and macroeconomic systems was made together with a disaggregation between business economics and business practice orientations under a micro-based classification, and between Government/tax/legal and Government/economics orientations under a macro-uniform based classification. Further disaggregations were then made between U.K. and U.S. influences under the business practices orientation and between tax­based and law-based systems under the Government/tax/legal orientation. This classification system was then tested by means of a judgmental analysis of national financial reporting systems in fourteen countries.

A structural approach to the identification of accounting practices was adopted whereby major features were assessed, such as, the importance of tax rules, the use of prudent/conservative valuation procedures, the strictness of application of historical cost, the making of replacement cost adjustments, the use of consolidation techniques, the generous use of provisions, and the uniformity between companies in the application of rules. The results of the statistical analysis did not, however, go much beyond providing support for the classification of countries as either micro-based or macro-based. Thus the disaggregated elements of the classification scheme, though plausible, remain hypothetical accounting patterns subject to further empirical analysis.

By way of contrast, the inductive approach to identifying accounting patterns begins with an analysis of accounting practices. Perhaps the most important contribution of this type was by Nair and Frank (1980), who carried out a statistical analysis of accounting practices in fourty-four countries. An empirical distinction was made between measurement and disclosure practices as these were seen to have different patterns of development.

The empirical results, using factor analysis applied to individual practices, showed that in respect of the Price Waterhouse (1975) data it was possible to identify five groupings of countries, with Chile as a single-country 'group', in terms of measurement practices. The number of groupings increased to seven when disclosure practices were considered. The measurement groupings were characterized broadly, following the 'spheres-of-influence' classification suggested by Seidler (1967), as the British Commonwealth, Latin America/South European, Northern and Central European, and United States models. The disclosure groupings, on the other hand, could not be described plausibly on a similar 'spheres-of-influence' classification on account of their apparent diversity.

Subsequent to the identification of groupings, Nair and Frank attempted to assess the relationships of these groupings with a number of explanatory variables. While relationships were established in respect of some of the variables which included language (as a proxy for culture), various aspects of economic structure and trading ties, it was clear that there were differences as between the measurement and disclosure groupings. However, the hypotheses that (a) cultural and economic variables might be more closely associated with disclosure practices, and (b) trading variables might be more closely associated with measurement practices were not supported. It is curious

3


 

ABACUS

to note here that the language variable, as a proxy for culture, was perceived to be a means of capturing similarities in legal systems which were thought to be particularly important in the determination of disclosure patterns. This is questionable in itself, but in any event no justification was given for the use of language as a proxy for culture.

From this brief review of some of the major studies in international classification it seems clear that to date only very broad country groupings or accounting patterns have been identified. At the same time, only very general relationships between environmental factors and accounting patterns have been established.

The significance of culture in the context of prior classification research is far from clear. It may be that cultural influences have been generally subsumed in the predominant concern with economic factors but this has not been made explicit. Accordingly, the influence of culture on accounting would seem to have been largely neglected in the development of ideas about international classifications.

THE CULTURAL DIMENSION

The significance of culture in influencing and explaining behaviour in social systems has been recognized and explored in a wide range of literatures but especially the anthropology, sociology and psychology literatures, (e.g., Parsons and Shils, 1951; Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961; Inkeles and Levinson, 1969; Douglas, 1977; Hofstede, 1980).

Culture has been defined as 'the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another' (Hofstede, 1980, p. 25). The word 'culture' is reserved for societies as a whole, or nations, whereas 'subculture' is used for the level of an organization, profession or family. While the degree of cultural integration varies between societies, most subcultures within a society share common characteristics with other subcultures (Hofstede, 1980, p. 26).

An essential feature of social systems is perceived to be the inclusion of a system of societal norms, consisting of the value systems shared by major groups within a nation. Values have been defined as 'a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others' (Hofstede, 1980, p. 19). Values at the collective level, as opposed to the individual level, represent culture; thus culture describes a system of societal or collectively held values.

In the accounting literature, however, the importance of culture and its historical roots is only just beginning to be recognized. While there has been a lack of attention to this dimension in the international classification literature, Harrison and McKinnon (1986) and McKinnon (1986) have recently proposed a methodological framework incorporating culture for analysing changes in corporate financial reporting regulation at the nation specific level. The use of this framework to assess the impact of culture on the form and functioning of accounting is demonstrated with reference to the system in Japan. Culture is considered an essential element in the framework for understanding how social systems change because 'culture influences: (1) the norms and values of such systems; and (2) the behaviour of groups in their interactions within and across systems' (Harrison and McKinnon, 1986, p. 239).

Complementing Harrison and McKinnon's approach is the suggestion here that

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A THEORY OF CULTURAL INFLUEI\iCE

a methodological framework incorporating culture may be used to explain and predict international differences in accounting systems and patterns of accounting development internationally. More specifically, it is proposed here to explore the extent to which cultural differences identified by Hofstede's cross-cultural research (1980, 1983) may explain international differences in accounting systems.

CULTURE, SOCIETAL VALUES AND THE ACCOUNTING SUBCULTURE

Hofstede's (1980,1983) research was aimed at detecting the structural elements of culture and particularly those which most strongly affect known behaviour in work situations in organizations and institutions. In what is probably one of the most extensive cross­cultural surveys ever conducted, psychologists collected data about 'values' from the employees of a multinational corporation located in more than fifty countries. Subsequent statistical analysis and reasoning revealed four underlying societal value dimensions along which countries could be positioned. These dimensions, with substantial support from prior work in the field, were labelled Individualism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity. Such dimensions, which are examined further below, were perceived to represent elements of a common structure in cultural systems. It was also shown how countries could be grouped into culture areas, on the basis of their scores on the four value dimensions, using cluster analysis and taking into account geographical and historical factors. Figure 1 shows the culture areas identified and within each group any identifiable sub-groups.

The point of reviewing Hofstede's research here is that if societal value orientations are related to the development of accounting systems at the subcultural level, given that such values permeate a nation's social system, then it may be hypothesized that there should be a close match between culture areas and patterns of accounting systems internationally.

In order to explore further the relationship between culture and accounting systems in an international context it is necessary to identify the mechanism by which values at the societal level are linked to values at the accounting subcultural level as it is these latter values which are likely to influence directly the development of accounting systems in practice.

A model of this process is proposed in Figure 2. This is an adaptation and extension of the model relating to the formation and stabilizing of societal culture patterns proposed by Hofstede (1980, p. 27). In this model, societal values are determined by ecological influences modified by external factors such as international trade and investment, conquest, and the forces of nature. In turn, societal values have institutional consequences in the form of the legal system, political system, nature of capital markets, pattern of corporate ownership and so on. These institutions reinforce both ecological influences and societal values.

An extension of this model is proposed here whereby societal values are expressed at the level of the accounting subculture. Accordingly, the value systems or attitudes of accountants may be expected to be related to and derived from societal values with special reference to work-related values. Accounting 'values' will, in turn, impact on accounting systems.

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ABACUS

FrGURE I

CUL TURE AREAS (HOFSTEDE)

Argentina Brazil Spain

Less developed Larin

Colombia Ecuador Mexico Venezuela

More developed Asian

Japan

More developed Latin

Belgium France

Italy

Costa Rica Chile Guatemala Panama Peru Portugal Salvador Uruguay

African East Africa West Africa

Less Developed Asian

Indonesia Pakistan Taiwan Thailand

Near Eastern

Arab countries Greece

Iran

Turkey Yugoslavia

Asian-Colonial Hong Kong Singapore

India Malaysia Philippines

Germanic Austria Israel

Anglo Australia Canada Ireland

New Zealand U.K.

U.S.A.

Nordic Denmark Finland Netherlands Norway Sweden

Germany Switzerland

South Africa

If Hofstede has correctly identified Individualism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity as significant cultural value dimensions then it should be possible to establish their relationship to accounting values. If such a relationship exists then a link between societal values and accounting systems can be established and the influence of culture assessed.

Before an attempt can be made to identify significant accounting values which may be related to societal values it is important to understand the meaning of the four value dimensions identified by Hofstede (1980, 1983) and referred to earlier. These dimensions are well expressed in Hofstede (1984, pp. 83-4) as follows:

Individualism versus Collectivism

Individualism stands for a preference for a loosely knit social framework in society wherein individuals are supposed to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. Its opposite, Collectivism, stands for a preference for a tightly knit social framework in which individuals can expect their relatives, clan, or other in-group to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty (it will be clear that the word 'collectivism' is not used here to describe any particular political system). The fundamental

6


 

A THEOR Y OF CUL TURA L IN'FL UENCE

FIGrRI' 2

CULTURE. SOCIETAL VALUES AND THE ACCOUNTING SUB-CULTURE

External

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

influences

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forces of nature

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trade

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conquest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ecological

 

J

Societal

I

 

lnstitutional

 

 

influences

 

-I

values

1

 

conseq u e n res

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Legal system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate ownership

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital markets

 

 

Geographic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Professional associations

 

Economic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Education

 

 

Demographic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Religion

 

 

Genetic/Hygienic

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Historical

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Technological

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Urbanisation

 

I Accounting

I

Accounting I

\V

 

f

 

 

values

 

I

systems i

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Reinforcement

issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of interdependence a society maintains among individuals. It relates to people's self-concept: T or 'we'.

Large versus Small Power Distance

Power Distance is the extent to which the members of a society accept that power in institutions and organisations is distributed unequally. This affects the behaviour of the less powerful as well as of the more powerful members of society. People in Large Power Distance societies accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place which needs no further justification. People in Small Power Distance societies strive for power equalisation and demand justification for power inequalities. The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is how a society handles inequalities among people when they occur. This has obvious consequence for the way people build their institutions and organisations.

Strong versus Weak Uncertainty .4 voidance

Uncertainty Avoidance is the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. This feeling leads them to beliefs promising certainty and to maintaining institutions protecting conformity. Strong Uncertainty Avoidance societies maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and arc intolerant towards deviant persons and ideas. Weak Uncertainty Avoidance societies maintain a more relaxed atmosphere in which practice counts more than principles and deviance is more easily tolerated. The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is how a society reacts on the fact that time only runs one way and that the future is unknown: whether it tries to control the future or to let it happen. Like Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance has consequences for the way people build their institutions and organizations.

Masculinity versus Femininity

Masculinity stands for a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material success. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for relationships, modesty, caring for the weak, and the quality of life. The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the way in which a society allocates social (as opposed to biological) roles to the sexes.

7


 

ABACUS

Having identified societal values is it possible then to identify significantly related accounting values at the level of the accounting subculture?

The following 'accounting' values, derived from a review of accounting literature

and practice, are offered for consideration:

Professionalism versus Statutory Control- a preference for the exercise of individual professional judgment and the maintenance of professional self-regulation as opposed to compliance with prescriptive legal requirements and statutory control.

Uniformity versus Flexibility-a preference for the enforcement of uniform accounting practices between companies and for the consistent use of such practices over time as opposed to flexibility in accordance with the perceived circumstances of individual companies.

Conservatism versus Optimism-a preference for a cautious approach to measurement so as to cope with the uncertainty of future events as opposed to a more optimistic, laissez-faire, risk-taking approach.

Secrecy versus Transparency - a preference for confidentiality and the restriction of disclosure of information about the business only to those who are closely involved with its management and financing as opposed to a more transparent, open and publicly accountable approach.

It should be emphasized that there is no suggestion that these 'values' are necessarily the only values involved. What they do represent, however, is an attempt to identify value dimensions which appear to be widely recognized.

What arguments are there to support these accounting value dimensions? How do they relate to societal values? How are they likely to impact on the development of national accounting systems?

Professionalism versus Statutory Control

This is proposed as a significant accounting value dimension because accountants are perceived to adopt independent attitudes and to exercise their individual professional judgments to a greater or lesser extent everywhere in the world.

A major controversy in many Western countries, for example, surrounds the issue of the extent to which the accounting profession should be subject to public regulation/statutory control or be permitted to retain control over accounting standards as a matter for private self-regulation (e.g., Taylor and Turley, 1986).

The development of professional associations has a long history but they are much more firmly established in countries such as the U.S.A. and the U.K. than in some of the Continental European countries and in many of the less developed countries (e.g., Holzer, 1984; Nobes and Parker, 1985).

In the U. K., for example, the concept of presenting 'a true and fair view' of a company's financial position and results depends heavily on the judgment of the accountant as an independent professional. This is so to the extent that accounting information disclosures additional to, and sometimes contrary to, what is specifically required by law may be necessary. This may be contrasted with the traditional position in France and Germany where the professional accountant's role has been concerned primarily with the implementation of relatively prescriptive and detailed legal

8


 

A THEORY OF CULTURAL I1VFLUEIVCE

requirements (e.g., Gray and Coenenberg, 1984). With the implementation of the EEC directives this situation is now changing to the extent that there is some movement, if not convergence, along the professionalism spectrum.

To what extent then can professionalism be linked to the societal values of Individualism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity? It is argued here that professionalism can be linked most closely with the individualism and uncertainty-avoidance dimensions. A preference for independent professional judgment is consistent with a preference for a loosely knit social framework where there is more emphasis on independence, a belief in individual decisions and respect for individual endeavour. This is also consistent with weak uncertainty avoidance where practice is all important, where there is a belief in fair play and as few rules as possible, and where a variety of professional judgments will tend to be more easily tolerated. There would also seem to be a link, if less strong, between professionalism and power distance in that professionalism is more likely to be accepted in a small power-distance society where there is more concern for equal rights, where people at various power levels feel less threatened and more prepared to trust people, and where there is a belief in the need to justify the imposition of laws and codes. As regards masculinity, however, there does not appear to be any significant link with professionalism.

Following from this analysis it may be hypothesized that:

   HI:      The higher a country ranks in terms of individualism and the lower it ranks in terms of uncertainty avoidance and power distance then the more likely it is to rank highly in terms of professionalism.

Uniformity versus Flexibility

This would seem to be a significant accounting value dimension because attitudes about uniformity, consistency or comparability are incorporated as a fundamental feature of accounting principles world-wide (e.g., Choi and Mueller, 1984; Arpan and Radebaugh, 1985; Nobes and Parker, 1985).

This is a value which is open to different interpretations ranging from a relatively strict inter-company and inter-temporal uniformity, to consistency within companies over time and some concern for comparability between companies, to relative flexibility of accounting practices to suit the circumstances of individual companies.

In countries such as France, for example, a uniform accounting plan has long been in operation, together with the imposition of tax rules for measurement purposes, where there is a concern to facilitate national planning and the pursuit of macroeconomic goals. In contrast, in the U.K. and U.S.A. there is more concern with inter-temporal consistency together with some degree of inter-company comparability subject to a perceived need for flexibility (e.g., Choi and Mueller, 1984; Holzer, 1984; Arpan and Radebaugh, 1985)_

To what extent then can uniformity be linked to societal value dimensions? It is argued here that uniformity can be linked most closely with the uncertainty-avoidance and individualism dimensions. A preference for uniformity is consistent with a preference for strong uncertainty avoidance leading to a concern for law and order and rigid codes of behaviour, a need for written rules and regulations, a respect for

9


 

ABACUS

conformity and the search for ultimate, absolute truths and values. This value dimension is also consistent with a preference for collectivism, as opposed to individualism, with its tightly knit social framework, a belief in organization and order, and respect for group norms. There would also seem to be a link, if less strong, between uniformity and power distance in that uniformity is more easily facilitated in a large power-distance society in that the imposition of laws and codes of a uniform character are more likely to be accepted. As regards masculinity, however, there does not appear to be any significant link with uniformity. Following from this analysis it may be hypothesized that:

   H2:      The higher a country ranks in terms of uncertainty avoidance and power distance and the lower it ranks in terms of individualism then the more likely it is to rank highly in terms of uniformity.

Conservatism versus Optimism

This would seem to be a significant accounting value dimension because it is arguably 'the most ancient and probably the most pervasive principle of accounting valuation' (Sterling, 1967, p. 110).

Conservatism or prudence in asset measurement and the reporting of profits is perceived as a fundamental attitude of accountants the world over. Moreover, conservatism varies according to country, ranging from a strongly conservative approach in the Continental European countries, such as France and Germany, to the much less conservative attitudes of accountants in the U.S.A. and U.K. (e.g., Beeny, 1975, 1976; Nobes, 1984; Choi and Mueller, 1984; Arpan and Radebaugh, 1985).

The differential impact of conservatism on accounting measurement practices internationally has also been demonstrated empirically (e.g., Gray, 1980; Choi and Mueller, 1984). Such differences would seem to be reinforced by the relative development of capital markets, the differing pressures of user interests, and the influence of tax laws on accountants in the countries concerned.

To what extent then can conservatism be linked to societal value dimensions? It is argued here that conservatism can be linked most closely with the uncertainty avoidance dimension. A preference for more conservative measures of profits is consistent with strong uncertainty avoidance following from a concern with security and a perceived need to adopt a cautious approach to cope with the uncertainty of future events. There would also seem to be a link, if less strong, between high levels of individualism and masculinity on the one hand, and weak uncertainty avoidance on the other, to the extent that an emphasis on individual achievement and performance is likely to foster a less conservative approach to measurement. As regards the power distance dimension there does not, however, appear to be any significant link with conservatism.

Following from this analysis it may be hypothesized that:

   H3:     The higher a country ranks in terms of uncertainty avoidance and the lower it ranks in terms of individualism and masculinity then the more likely it is to rank highly in terms of conservatism.

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A THEORY OF CULTURAL INFLUE:VCE

Secrecy versus Transparency

This would seem to be a significant accounting value dimension which stems as much from management as it does from the accountant owing to the influence of management on the quantity of information disclosed to outsiders (e.g., J aggi, 1975). Secrecy, or confidentiality, in business relationships is, nevertheless, a fundamental accounting attitude (Arpan and Radebaugh, 1985).

Secrecy would also seem to be closely related to conservatism in that both values imply a cautious approach to corporate financial reporting in general; but with secrecy relating to the disclosure dimension and conservatism relating to the measurement dimension. The extent of secrecy would seem to vary across countries with lower levels of disclosure, including instances of secret reserves, evident in the Continental European countries, for example, compared to the U.S.A. and U.K. (e.g., Barrett, 1976; Choi and Mueller, 1984; Arpan and Radebaugh, 1985). These differences would also seem to be reinforced by the differential development of capital markets and the nature of share ownership which may provide incentives for the voluntary disclosure of information (e.g., Watts, 1977).

To what extent, then, can secrecy be linked to societal value dimensions? It is argued here that secrecy can be linked most closely with the uncertainty-avoidance, power­distance and individualism dimensions. A preference for secrecy is consistent with strong uncertainty avoidance following from a need to restrict information disclosures so as to avoid conflict and competition and to preserve security. A close relationship with power distance also seems likely in that high power-distance societies are likely to be characterized by the restriction of information to preserve power inequalities. Secrecy is also consistent with a preference for collectivism, as opposed to individualism, with its concern for those closely involved with the firm rather than external parties. A significant but less important link with masculinity also seems likely to the extent that more caring societies where more emphasis is given to the quality of life, people and the environment, will tend to be more open especially as regards socially related information.

Following from this analysis it may be hypothesized that:

   H4:     The higher a country ranks in terms of uncertainty avoidance and power distance and the lower it ranks in terms of individualism and masculinity then the more likely it is to rank highly in terms of secrecy.

ACCOUNTING VALUES AND CULTURE AREA CLASSIFICATIONS

Having formulated hypotheses relating societal values to accounting values internationally, it is evident that the most important societal values at the level of the accounting subculture would seem to be uncertainty avoidance and individualism. While power distance and masculinity are also significant to some extent, masculinity appears to be of somewhat lesser importance in the system of accounting values.

It is now proposed to hypothesize culture area classifications in the context of combinations of accounting values. For this purpose it is argued here that a useful distinction can be made between the authority for accounting systems, that is, the extent to which they are determined and enforced by statutory control or professional

II


 

ABACUS

means on the one hand, and the measurement and disclosure characteristics of accounting systems on the other.

Accounting values most relevant to the professional or statutory authority for accounting systems and their enforcement would seem to be the professionalism and uniformity dimensions in that they are concerned with regulation and the extent of enforcement or conformity. Accordingly, these can be combined and the classification of culture areas hypothesized on a judgmental basis as shown in Figure 3. In making these judgments reference has been made to the relevant correlations between value dimensions and the resultant clusters of countries identified from the statistical analysis carried out by Hofstede (1980, pp. 223, 316). From this classification it seems clear that the Anglo and Nordic culture areas may be contrasted with the Germanic and more developed Latin culture areas on the one hand, and the Japanese, Near Eastern, less developed Latin, less developed Asian and African culture areas on the other. The Colonial Asian countries are separately classified, representing a mixture of influences.

Accounting values most relevant to the measurement practices used and the extent of information disclosed are self-evidently the conservatism and secrecy dimensions. Accordingly, these can be combined and [he classification of culture areas hypothesized on a judgmental basis as shown in Figure 4. In making judgments in respect of these

FIGURE 3

ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS: AUTHORITY AND ENFORCEMENT

Statutory control

Nordic

Less developed Latin

Asian­Colonial

Less developed Asian

Near Eastern

Japan

African

Flexibility

Uniformity

More Developed Latin

Germanic

Anglo

Professionalism

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A THEOR Y OF CUL rURAL [NFL UENCE

classifications reference has also been made to the relevant correlations between value dimensions and the resultant clusters of countries identified from the statistical analysis carried out by Hofstede (1980, pp. 316,324). Here there would appear to be a sharper division of culture area groupings with the Colonial Asian group relating more closely with the Anglo and Nordic groupings in contrast with the Germanic and more developed Latin groupings which appear to relate more closely to the Japanese, less developed Asian, African, less developed Latin, and Near Eastern area groupings.

FIGURE 4

ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS: MEASUREMENT AND DISCLOSURE

Secrecy

Nordic

Asian­Colonial

Less developed Latin

Germanic

Near Eastern

Japan

Less developed Asian

African

More developed Latin

o timism

Conservatism

Anglo

Transparency

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

While prior research has shown that there are different patterns of accounting and that the development of national systems of corporate financial reporting is related to environmental factors, identification of the patterns and the influential factors involved remains controversial. The significance of culture in this context is far from clear and has been a relatively neglected issue in the development of ideas about international classification.

In this paper, a framework for analysing the impact of culture on the development

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ABACUS

of accounting systems internationally has been proposed. Value dimensions at the accounting subculture level have been identified, that is, professionalism, uniformity. conservatism and secrecy. These have been linked to cultural value dimensions at the societal level and hypotheses have been formulated for testing. Classifications of country groupings by culture area have also been hypothesized as a basis for testing the relationship between culture and accounting systems in the context of systems authority and enforcement characteristics on the one hand, and measurement and disclosure characteristics on the other.

Following this analysis, empirical research now needs to be carried out to assess the extent to which there is in fact a match between (a) societal values and accounting values, and (b) the proposed classification of country groupings, based on cultural influence, and the groupings derived from an analysis of accounting practices related to the value dimensions of the accounting subculture. However, for this to be feasible, further work to operationalize the link between accounting practices and accounting values will be necessary, and the relevant cross-cultural data assembled and organized.

In interpreting the results of empirical research relating to culture, the influence of any change factors will also need to be taken into account, bearing in mind the existence of external influences arising from colonization, war, and foreign investment, including the activities of multinational companies and large international accounting firms.

While much work lies ahead, this paper is offered as a contribution towards a theory of cultural influence on the development of accounting systems internationally. In doing so it is fully recognized that the ideas advanced are exploratory and subject to empirical testing and verification.

REFERE"ICES

Arpan, J, S., and L. H. Radebaugh, international Accounting and Multinationoi Enterprises, Wiley, 1985, Barrett, M. E., 'Financial Reporting Practices: Disclosure and Comprehensiveness in an International

Setting', Journal of Accounting Research, Spring 1976.

Beeny, J, H" European Financial Reporting- West Germany, ICAEW, 1975. --, European Financial Reporting-France, ICAEW, 1976,

Choi, F. D, S,. and G, G, Mueller, International Accounting, Prentice-Hall, 1984,

Douglas. M., Cosmology: An Enquiry into Cultural Bias, Royal Anthropological Institute, 1977. Frank, W. G" 'An Empirical Analysis of International Accounting Principles'. Journal of Accounting

Research, Autumn 1979,

Gray, S. J .. 'The Impact of International Accounting Differences from a Security Analysis Perspective:

Some European Evidence'. Journal of Accounting Research, Spring 1980.

Gray. S. J. and A. G. Coenenberg (eds). EEC Accounting Harmonisation: Implementation and Impact of the Fourth Directive, North Holland. 19R4.

Harrison, G. L.. and J. L. McKinnon. 'Cultural and Accounting Change: A New Perspective on Corporate Reporting Regulation and Accounting Policy Formulation', Accounting. Organtzations and Society; Vol. II, No, 3, 1986.

Hofstede, G., Culture's Consequences, Sage Publications, 1980,

--, 'Dimensions of National Cultures in Fifty Countries and Three Regions'. in J. B, Deregowski, S. Dziurawiec and R, Annis (eds), Expiscations in Cross-Cultural Psychology, Swets and ZeitJinger, 1983.

--. 'Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning'. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, January 1984,

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A THEORY OF CULTURAL INFLUENCE

Holzer, H. P. (ed.), International Accounting, Harper & Row, 1984.

Inkeles, A., and P. J. Levinson, 'National Character: The Study of Modal Personality and Sociocultural Systems', in G. Lindsey and E. Aronson (eds), The Handbook oj Social Psychology, (2nd edn), Addison­Wesley, 19.

Jaggi, B. L, 'The Impact of the Cultural Environment on Financial Disclosures', International Journal of Accounting, Spring 1975.

Kluckhohn, F. R., and F. L. Strodtbeck, Variations in Value Orientations, Greenwood Press, 1961. McKinnon, J. L., The Historical Development and Operational Form oj Corporate Reporting Regulation in Japan, Garland, 1986.

Mueller, G. G., International Accoul'lling, Macmillan, 1967.

---, 'Accounting Principles Generally Accepted in the United States Versus those Generally Accepted Elsewhere', International Journal of Accounting Education and Research, Spring 1968.

Nair, R. D., and W. G. Frank, 'The Impact of Disclosure and Measurement Practices on International Accounting Classifications', The Accounting Review, July 1980.

Nobes, C. W., 'A Judgemental International Classification of Financial Reporting Practices', Journal of

Business Finance and Accounting, Spring 1983.

---, International Classification of Financial Reporting, Croom Helm, 1984.

Nobes, C. W., and R. H. Parker, (eds). Comparative International Accounting, Philip Allan, 1985. Parsons, T., and E. A. Shils, Toward a General Theory of Action, Harvard University Press, 1951. Price Waterhouse International,International Survey of Accounting Principles and Reporting Practices,

1975.

Radebaugh, L. H., 'Environmental Factors Influencing the Development of Accounting Objectives, Standards and Practices in Peru', International Journal oj Accounting Education and Research, Fall, 1975.

Seidler, L. J., 'International Accounting - the Ultimate Theory Course', The Accounting Review, October 17.

Sterling, R. R., 'Conservatism: The Fundamental Principle of Valuation in Traditional Accounting', Abacus, December 1967.

Taylor, P., and S. Turley, The Regulation of Accounting, Blackwell, 1986.

Watts, R. L., 'Corporate Financial Statements: A Product of the Market and Political Processes', Australian Journal oj Management, April 1977.

Zeff', S. A., Forging Accounting Principles in Five Countries: A History and an Analysis of Trends, Stipes, 1971.

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accounting article summaries
19493

Prior to completing this assignment, review Assignment 9 in Chapter 17 of your course text. Prepare an evaluation of the performance of the Radiology Department Manager for a hospital.

 

The service unit, or output, for this department is the number of procedures performed. A static budget was prepared at the beginning of the year. Examine that budget in relation to actual experience. The relevant data are included in Table 17-18 in your course text. The department manager is pleased because the department has a favorable $120,000 cost variance. Evaluate the effectiveness claims of the manager using the budgetary variance mode described in Chapter 17. What is your analysis of the department manager’s performance? Explain your reasoning.

Your paper must include an introduction, thesis, and conclusion. Your paper must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.  Utilize three scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources (excluding the course text) that were published within the last five years. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and provide complete references for each source used on the reference page.

Budgetary Variance Model
19465

In your own words, explain what CSR is. Name two examples of socially  responsible companies you know and explain why you consider them so.

It is important for companies to incorporate social responsibility  into their strategic plans. Give a brief summary of the company you  chose in Week 1. What aspects of corporate social responsibility would  you recommend they incorporate into its strategic plan? Support your  rationale from your research.

(NOTE: Incorporate the feedback you receive from your instructor and  save your work. It will be part of your Strategic Plan Final Project for  this course).

Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your  fellow students’ posts in a substantive manner and provide  recommendations to extend their thinking. Are there other aspects of  corporate social responsibility that you feel should be incorporated  into the company’s strategic plan? Support position by using information  from the week’s readings, or examples from current events and/or other  scholarly or credible resources, using the Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. document for guidance.

Accounting Excel worksheet
19339

 

Assignment Semester 2, 2018

Advanced Auditing and Assurance (ACC5AAS) Department of Accounting and Data Analytics La Trobe University

This assignment is to be based on AMP Limited (ASX code-AMP).

The assignment is to be completed in groups of two (members need not be in the same tutorial). The successful completion of this assignment requires extensive research on AMP's internal and external environments, operations and analysis of the 2017 annual report.

Weighting: 20 of Total Mark

Word Limit- 3,000 words (excludes title page, executive summary and reference list) In relation to the word limit, +/-10 variation of the 3,000 words (2700 to 3300) is acceptable.

Submission details

·        The assignment is to be submitted via LMS through Turnitin, as per the Subject Learning Guide.

·        The due date for assignment is Wednesday September 19,5.00 pm.

Late Submission

Submission made after the deadline will be marked late and penalty will be imposed on the submitted work. Please refer to the Subject Learning Guide (pp. 6-7) for more details.

Presentation Requirements

The assignment shall be presented in the following format:

1.      A title page containing the title of the assignment, name and student numbers of

the group members, number of words in the assignment

2.      A table of contents

3.      An executive summary followed by the body of the assignment

4.      A reference list

5.      Each page must be numbered. Appropriate reference citations throughout the assignment are expected.

Failure to meet the presentation requirements will incur a mark 5 mark penalty.


 

Assume that the audit for AMP Limited (AMP), a financial services company, will be coming up for tender. You and your colleagues are required to prepare a client evaluation report based on your research for the senior partners of your audit firm. Your report should provide preliminary information as to whether or not the audit firm should consider tendering for the audit of AMP.

You should conduct extensive research and perform an analysis of the annual report of AMP for the year 2017 and any other relevant information that you have obtained (Hint: company's financial results, financial press and other business media).

In your report, you must address the following issues:

1. What are the areas in which AMP conducts its operations?

(3 marks)

2.      Which particular laws/regulations (other than financial related categories which include legislation such as: Australian taxation laws, Corporation Act 2001 etc.) affect AMP's operations? You need to identify and describe at least FOUR

      laws/regulations.                                                                                                   (8 marks)

3.       Identify and explain FOUR business risks that could have impact on the audit of

      AMP.                                                                                                                     (8 marks)

4.      Based on your business risk analysis and understanding of AMP group and its environment, list and explain FOUR accounts to be at risk of material misstatements. You also need to identify the key assertion at risk for each identified account. (8 marks)

5.      The recent Royal Commission highlighted a number of internal control deficiencies and fraud perpetuated on AMP clients for an extended period of time. These findings have serious ramifications for AMP. How will these findings affect

      your tendering decision?                                                                                       (4 marks)

6.       Based on your understanding of the client and assessment of the client's business

      and audit risks, would you undertake the audit? Why?                                        (4 marks)

The answers for above questions should be reflective of your in-depth understanding of how the AMP operates.

Total -35 marks

Presentation requirements- 5 marks Grand total- 40 marks

Final mark-20 marks


 

Group assignment -assessment sheet

Group No. _______ _

Students IDs (i) _______________ (ii) __________________________ (iii) ___________________ _

No.

 

Marks

Comments

1

Overview of the client's

13

 

 

operations

 

 

2

4 laws and regulations*2

18

 

3

4 business risks*2

18

 

4

4 accounts of concern*2

18

 

5

Royal Commission affecting

14

 

 

the tendering decision

 

 

6

Would you undertake the

14

 

 

audit? Why?

 

 

7

Presentation requirements

15

 

 

(i) Title page and a table of

 

 

 

contents (1 mark)

 

 

 

(ii) An executive summary

 

 

 

(1 mark)

 

 

 

(iii) with in word limit (1

 

 

 

mark)

 

 

 

(iv) Reference list &

 

 

 

citations (2 marks)

 

 

Total marks

140

 

Total marks

120

 

Less: Late submission

 

 

Final mark

120

 

 

Auditing and Assurance
19336

Westboro Baptist Church has gained notoriety in the past few years by staging protests at funerals.  Often they will protest at a military funeral because they oppose the war.  Sometimes they will disrupt a funeral because they oppose a person or group's political stance on abortion, gay marriage or another controversial issue.  Despite a distaste for protesting at a solemn and respectful occasion like a funeral many people (judges included) have upheld their right to do so based on the First Amendment protection for freedom of speech. Others feel their right to voice their opinions in this way is outweighed by the family's right to privacy (also protected by the Constitution) and they should not be allowed to continue.  Read the following article from The Huffington Post (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.about an group that tries to stop the Westboro protestors from staging these events and write an original 250 word post explaining your opinion on the issue. (See also Snyder v. Phelps on page 80 of the textbook.) Compare the constitutional rights of the three groups (WBC, the group trying to stop them, the family of the deceased.)  Which right is most important?  Should they (WBC) be allowed to continue or should the courts be willing to issue an injection preventing them from these types of activities?

 

 

Write an original 250+ word post by Wednesday of the week the discussion is due.  In your post mention the article you have read at least twice and give your opinion on the issue in a clear and understandable manner. Always discuss any ethical issues that are involved. Cite any other sources you use when writing your post at the end of your submission.  After writing your own post, reply to the posts of two other students before the discussion board due date.  Replies should be at least 150 words long and ask questions or otherwise encourage discussion.  Replies that simply compliment or disagree with the post will not be accepted for credit.

Discussion 1 - Westboro Baptist C
19321

Required

Discuss all three companies above and find (via electronic journals) the events that led up to the liquidation. Visit the CPA website; discuss APES 110 Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants. Highlight 5 codes of ethics.  Visit the ASX website and discuss the Listing Rules ( 8 principles) governing listed companies in terms of corporate governance.  Were liabilities a major factor contributing to the liquidation of individual companies?

Accounting Financial ACC701

 

Individual Assignment

 

Due Week 9, submit on Turnitin

 

Question

 

 

In recent years a number of companies have gone into liquidation (been ‘wound up’) because they have not been able to meet their liabilities when they fell due. In Australia, there are some well-publicised examples such as ABC Learning, HIH Insurance and One.Tel phone company

 

Required

Discuss all three companies above and find (via electronic journals) the events that led up to the liquidation. Visit the CPA website; discuss APES 110 Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants. Highlight 5 codes of ethics.  Visit the ASX website and discuss the Listing Rules ( 8 principles) governing listed companies in terms of corporate governance.  Were liabilities a major factor contributing to the liquidation of individual companies?

 

Research Requirements

 

Students need to support their analysis with reference to relevant material from the text and a minimum of eight (8) suitable, reliable, current and academically acceptable sources – this should include at least 2 peer-reviewed academic journal articles.

 

Presentation

 

 2000 + 10%-word short report format. Title page, executive summary, table of contents, appropriate headings and sub-headings, recommendations/findings/conclusions, in-text referencing and reference list (Harvard – Anglia style), attachments if relevant. Single spaced, font Times New Roman 12pt, Calibri 11pt or Arial 10pt.

 

Marking Guide

 

 Analysis 30%

Research extent and application 30%

Recommendations/conclusions 20%

Presentation 20%

 

Total mark will be scaled to a mark out of 30 subject marks.

 

 

 

 

Accounting Financial
19291

Reaction Paper

We were introduced to Erikson’s theory of development in Chapter 3 and to Piaget’s theory of development in Chapter 6 of the Lecci & Magnavita text.

  • Write a 3-4 page paper (excluding the cover sheet and reference page) covering the below points:
  • Compare and contrast the two theories.
  • Which theory you believe has more validity? Why?

In addition to the text, use at least three other resources for this assignment.

REACTION PAPER (wk-5-ASSIGNMENT) (9-6-18)
19286

Unit:   The Appraisal Feedback Process

Due Date:   Wed, 9/5/18

Deliverable Length:   700-900 words with a minimum of 4 scholarly references

**APA Format, No grammar errors, No Plagiarism & Must be on Time.  

**************************************************************************

Assignment Description

Your supervisor, Annalise, the Human Resources Director at Matrix, has reviewed your research on performance appraisal feedback and is very impressed with your work.  She asks you to continue research into other potential areas that require improvements. Both of you acknowledge that a major gap may exist in the area of training. She asks you to prepare a report about the following aspects of training:

  • *Why would training be a critical component to executing a new performance appraisal system?
  • *What value would training bring to the process?
  • *Who should be given training within Matrix, and why?
  • *What type of training programs would be required? Describe these in detail.
  • *Who would provide the training at Matrix?
  • *Are there any types of rater bias that can be eliminated or decreased through effective training? 

Please submit your assignment. For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.

Unit 3 - Individual Project
19285

reply 1: 

 

HelloFresh core mission and business model are inseparable and always centered around “Changing the way people eat.  Forever”.  As we progress into our new venture, we want to make sure that our mission is not lost.  As we move forward in the coming year's communication and transparency will be of the utmost importance as changes are going to take place.  At times when changes occur, communication can become muddy and create an atmosphere of non-inclusion.  Here at HelloFresh, we want to deter that from happening.  In doing so, we have created what we call, HelloFresh Future Committee.

The HelloFresh Future Committee is armed with the task of maintaining a formal sustainability structure into all elements of our business.  The committee helps prioritize the interest of our colleagues and customers through sustainability reporting.  The report allows HelloFresh an opportunity to inform our employees and management what is transpiring within the company and how it affects them.  Along with reporting will be scheduled monthly meetings for employees and management to answer questions, express concerns and provide ideas they may have.

The committee will also be used to assist with the integration of Green Chef and HelloFresh, making sure those from Green Chef are introduced to everything from the HelloFresh vision.  In addition to making sure we are receptive to their ideas and willing to create an inclusive environment for both companies allowing them to feel involved and empowered about their contributions.

In our effort to expand our product line to be inclusive to those with food allergies and intolerances, it will be essential, to be honest, and diligent with our efforts to gain buy-in.  The need for more food options that include those with food allergies and intolerances are there.  Acquiring Green Chef provides us an excellent opportunity to enter that arena as they have experience servicing those with food intolerances.  Their knowledge and HelloFresh resources creates a support system for success.  At HelloFresh, we understand when attempting to gain buy-in, relationships are as important as ideas.

Regards,

*****************************************************************

Reply 2:

 

As JC Penney moves to acquire Stitch Fix, my biggest concern is finding and dealing with detractors.  If I cannot instill the dire sense of urgency in everyone at JCP, resistors and detractors will be quickly and publicly removed from the organization.  The speed required to make drastic strategic changes will not allow for any resistors to impede the process.

I will utilize John Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process to implement the integration of our two companies.

  1. Establish a Sense of Urgency by showcasing the terrible market position we are currently in.
    1. Comparable store sales up mere .3%
    2. Steady decrease in overall revenue for 5+ years
    3. JCP currently the lowest valued of all legacy brick and mortar department stores…I will show a chart of current stock prices for several competitors, show us as the lowest.
  2. Create a Guiding Coalition by showing online sales are highest growth area at 20%
    1. Recruit IT/Marketing/Merchandising/Operations SVP’s to lead the path forward
    2. Must be fully formed prior to acquisition
  3. Develop a Vision and Strategy by incorporating young and innovative ideas from SF into the JCP business.  Create a development plan for all executives to move between SF and JC Penney. 
    1. All SF & JCP executives are part of strategy creating.  Joint efforts and teamwork are the name of the game here.
    2. Should be finalized no more than two months after acquisition
  4. Communicate the Change Vision by ensuring all employees must understand that online sales are the path to JCP’s future success, a SF merger is the best way forward as we are not capable of emulating their model on our own.  This begins on the day the deal closes and continues until the combined culture is fully adopted.
  5. Empower Employees for Broad-Based Action by bringing SF employees in the JCP corporate structure allowing them the opportunity to lead in a larger organization.  JCP incumbents must recognize and adopt new innovative ideas, methodologies, and technologies.
  6. Generate Short-Term Wins by allowing employees at all levels to influence operations and integration.  Continuous Process Improvement is key here, especially within the first year.
  7. Consolidate Gains and Produce More Change by rewarding employees from both companies as they adopt the changing business and lead the combined companies into the future.
  8. Anchor New Approaches in the Culture by promoting or moving SF executives within the greater JCP organization.  Front line managers will also receive bonuses for improved integration of omnichannel distribution with the SF model.
Discussion reply
19284

1 full page of three topics chosen from given material single spaced.  Need today preferably in the next 2 hrs 

 

http://denniscaplan.fatcow.com/Chapter12.htm

 

http://maaw.info/Chapter4.htm

 

http://maaw.info/Chapter6.htm

Three topics from given material
19282

 1 full page of three topics chosen from given material single spaced.  Need today preferably in the next 2 hrs 

 

http://denniscaplan.fatcow.com/Chapter12.htm

 

http://maaw.info/Chapter4.htm

 

http://maaw.info/Chapter6.htm

Three topics from given material
19264

I have some homework that needs to be done, if you are knowledgeable in Accounting please bid for this I need only serious inquiries meaning you know your stuff. I can't afford to fail this course. Once I have selected you I will give you the directions you need to access the material.

Accounting Financial Homework
19260

For your initial post in the Week 10 Cheddar Chat, reflect upon this week’s Live Lesson. Talk about why your business (one you work for, have worked for, want to work for, or want to create) should enter into a merger or sale. Some questions to contemplate when formulating your response include: What are some of the main benefits associated with entering into a merger or acquisition? What should you do to prepare for a sale? When is the right time to sell? What are some other considerations? What do you stand to gain? How do Grit and Growth Mindset factor in? ***Please note that it is not necessary to answer all of the questions listed; they are meant to be used as a guideline for developing your response.

 

BUSINESS TYPE RETAIL OF CLOTHING AND ACCESSORIES 

 

ONE PARAGRAPH

Watch the Week 10 Cheddar Chat Video and then do the following:
19256

A .Select any two of the IAS or IFRS standards presented this week and discuss how Amazon handles the two standards you selected. 

B. There are six major reasons for accounting diversity throughout the world:

1. Legal systems

2. Taxation

3. Sources of financing

4. Inflation

5. Political and economic ties

6. Culture

Two additional factors to consider

7. Level of economic development

8. Education

Select which one factor has exerted the greatest influence on the development of accounting (in general you are not focusing on a specific country) in your opinion and why. 

List of international standards for reference:  https://learn.umuc.edu/content/enforced/327610-000135-01-2188-OL1-6380/List%20of%20IAS%20and%20IFRS.docx?_&d2lSessionVal=Z6wIu6DOr2F5GIDh4YAPz61N3

International Accounting
19251

Part 1 (Individual Portion)

Your boss recently attended an accounting seminar at which the balanced scorecard was discussed. He has asked you to prepare a presentation for the next manager’s meeting about the balanced scorecard and how EEC might adopt it. In your presentation, you should complete the following:

 

Define the elements that might be presented in a balanced scorecard.  Explain how the elements will be used.  

Make a recommendation of whether or not EEC should adopt the balanced scorecard.  

If adopted, how might it improve the company? 

 

Part 2 (Group Portion)

The President of EEC realizes that the balanced scorecard translates an organization’s mission and strategy into operational objectives and performance measures. Discuss the following in the group presentation:

 

Describe unethical behavior that can result if the wrong performance measures are used to tie performance measures to compensation.  How can EEC avoid these behaviors?  

How should EEC tie performance measures to compensation?  

Who is responsible for establishing the performance measures?

Ethics, Performance Measures, and the Balanced Scorecard
19223

a) Discuss why you chose your major (accounting for most of you) and your “dream” job, and b) Consider that disclosure tends to drive behavior toward some expected level.  Briefly discuss whether more disclosure (or less) should be required for firms. Length should be no greater than one page (double spaced).

ACC essay
19216 By the due date assigned solve the following problem. Norma’s Cat Food of Shell Knob ships cat food throughout the country. Norma has determined that through the establishment of local collection centers around the country, she can speed up the collection of payments by two and one-half days. Furthermore, the cash management department of her bank has indicated to her that she can defer her payments on her accounts by one-half day without affecting suppliers. The bank has a remote disbursement center in Iowa. If the company has $5 million per day in collections and $3 million per day in disbursements, how many dollars will the cash management system free up? Justify your answers. If the company can earn 8 percent per annum on freed-up funds, how much will the income be? Justify your answers. If the annual cost of the new system is $800,000, should it be implemented? Explain why or why not. Turn in your completed work to the Submissions Area through the end of the module. Assignment 2 Grading CriteriaMaximum Points Correctly calculated that amount in dollars the cash management system will free up and justified the response.30 Correctly calculated income and justified response.30 Clearly explained if the new system should be implemented.30 Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.10 Total:100 M2 Assignment 2 Submission
19213

Do both practice Assignment and Connect Assignment on my account.

 

Practice has multiple try's until good score.

 

Connect Assignment is the test with one try.

 

MUST BE GOOD WITH MATH...

 

I will give you account and password after acceptance and conversation.  

Phoenix ACC/290 Week 3 Practice Assingment and Connect Assignment
19211

1.)

There are three (3) types of textbook based homework items located at the end of each chapter. These include Discussion Questions (DQ), Exercises (E), and Problems (P). Some homework items have been custom created.

Complete the following homework scenario:

Required:

Compare the results of the three (3) methods by quality of information for decision making. Using what you have learned about the three (3) methods, identify the best project by the criteria of long term increase in value. (You do not need to do further research.) Convey your understanding of the Time Value of Money principles used or not used in the three (3) methods. Review the video titled "NPV, IRR, MIRR for Mac and PC Excel" (located at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7CryVgFbBc and previously listed in Week 4) to help you understand the foundational concepts:

Scenario Information:

Assume that two gas stations are for sale with the following cash flows: CF1 is the Cash Flow in the first year, and CF2 is the Cash Flow in the second year. This is the timeline and data used in calculating the Payback Period, Net Present Value, and Internal Rate of Return. The calculations are done for you. Your task is to select the best project and explain your decision. The methods are presented and the decision each indicates is given below.

  Investment Sales Price CF1 CF2   Gas Station A $50,000 $0 $100,000   Gas Station B $50,000 $50,000 $25,000    
 

Three (3) Capital Budgeting Methods are presented:

  1. Payback Period: Gas Station A is paid back in 2 years: CF1 in year 1, and CF2 in year 2. Gas Station B is paid back in one (1) year. According to the payback period, when given the choice between two mutually exclusive projects, the investment paid back in the shortest time is selected.
  2. Net Present Value: Consider the gas station example above under the NPV method, and a discount rate of 10%: 
    • NPV gas station A = $100,000/(1+.10)2 - $50,000 = $32,644
    • NPV gas station B = $50,000/(1+.10) + $25,000/(1+.10)2 - $50,000 = $16,115
  3. Internal Rate of Return: Assuming 10% is the cost of funds. The IRR for Station A is 41.421%.; for Station B, 36.602.

Summary of the Three (3) Methods:

  • Gas Station B should be selected, as the investment is returned in 1 period rather than 2 periods required for Gas Station A.
  • Under the NPV criteria, however, the decision favors gas station A, as it has the higher net present value. NPV is a measure of the value of the investment.
  • The IRR method favors Gas Station A, as it has a higher return, exceeding the cost of funds (10%) by the highest return.

2.)

Please note that this assignment is based on a pretend scenario and fictitious money. However, the assignment is based on actual stock pricing in real time situations. Do not invest your personal money for this assignment.

This is the week you have been waiting for – to see if you are walking home a ‘pretend’ millionaire, or whether you would be finding a side job to recoup your losses.

For Week 10, review your investment for the last time. You must:

  1. Record the current price of the stock for each company you selected in Week 3’s Stock Journal. You may use any price during this week (e.g., day one price, the opening, the low, the high, the close, or any price you find when you check it during the day). Using a MS Excel spreadsheet or MS Word document, put your Week 8 and Week 10 stock prices side-by-side, to show the comparison. 
  2. Determine the total value of your investment.
  3. Provide your final opinion / assessment of your investments. Did you make money or lose money? Discuss your results and, based on hindsight, describe what you would do differently.
  4. Discuss what you learned from this assignment. Do you believe this assignment will help you in the future in any way?

3.)

Careers in Finance
Finance is an exciting field in need of intelligent, skilled people. The job opportunities range from corporate finance; financial planning; investment banking; insurance; and real estate from individuals, institutions, government, and businesses. Finance managers acquire, spend, and manage money and other financial assets.
 

Use the Internet and / or Strayer Resource Center to research career options within the field of finance. Consider the Bureau of Labor Statistics Website, and the Websites of finance professional associations such as the Association for Financial Professionals (AFP), Society of Financial Service Professionals (SFSP), The National Association for Personal Financial Advisors (NAPFA), and Financial Management Association International (FMA).
 

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Describe two (2) financial career options that an individual with a finance education might pursue and explain the value that such a position adds to a company.
  2. Explain the essential skills that would make a person successful in each of the described positions.
  3. Recommend one (1) of the career options. Identify the most attractive features of the position.
  4. Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements:
    1. Typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides.
    2. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student's name, the professor's name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Describe the forms of business organizations and the role of financial managers within an organization.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in finance.
  • Write clearly and concisely about finance using proper writing mechanics.
Principles of Finance
19190

Effective financial reporting depends on sound ethical behavior. Financial scandals in accounting and the businesses world have resulted in legislation to ensure adequate disclosures and honesty and integrity in financial reporting.  A sound economy is contingent on truthful and reliable financial reporting.

Instructions:

 Read the following scenario.

· Answer the questions that follow. Your answers should result in a 2-3 page submission.
 

Scenario:

Imagine you are the assistant controller in charge of general ledger accounting at Linbarger Company. Your company has a large loan from an insurance company. The loan agreement requires that the company’s cash account balance be maintained at $200,000 or more, as reported monthly. At June 30, the cash balance is $80,000. You give this update to Lisa Infante, the financial vice president. Lisa is nervous and instructs you to keep the cash receipts book open for one additional day for purposes of the June 30 report to the insurance company. Lisa says, “If we don’t get that cash balance over $200,000, we’ll default on our loan agreement. They could close us down, put us all out of our jobs!” Lisa continues, “I talked to Oconto Distributors (one of Linbarger’s largest customers) this morning. They said they sent us a check for $150,000 yesterday. We should receive it tomorrow. If we include just that one check in our cash balance, we’ll be in the clear. It’s in the mail!”

Questions:

1. What is the accounting problem that the Linbarger Company faces?

2. What are the ethical considerations in this case? Provide rationale for why these are ethical considerations.

3. What are the negative impacts that can happen if you do not follow Lisa Infante’s instructions to wait one more day to post the balance?

4. Who will be negatively impacted if you do comply? Provide a rationale for why these individuals will be impacted.

5. What is one alternative that you could pursue in this scenario? Support your recommendations with information you learned in this class.

ACC 100 Week 9 Ethics In Accounting
19092

Type: Discussion Board

Unit:  SWOT Analysis & NPV

Due Date:  Fri, 9/7/18

Deliverable Length:  Primary Task: 400-600 words

 

https://class.ctuonline.edu/_layouts/MUSEViewer/MUSE.aspx?mid=12674721

 

Reminder: Initial Discussion Board posts due by Friday, responses due by Tuesday

Students will be expected to post their first initial discussion board posting by Friday of each week. Discussion posts will be graded and late submissions will be assigned a late penalty in accordance with the late penalty policy found in the syllabus. NOTE: All submission posting times are based on midnight Central Time.

Students are expected to post their responses to peers by Tuesday. NOTE: All submission posting times are based on midnight Central Time.

Primary Task Response: Respond to the following scenario with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. Be substantive and clear, and use research to reinforce your ideas.

Now is the time to make a decision about relocating the manufacturing operation to the United States is fast-approaching. AutoEdge, like most companies, uses a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threat (SWOT) analysis to facilitate its decision making.

You have just completed your first monthly activity report for the board when Lester calls.

"Hi," you say. "I just finished my monthly report for the board. I'll e-mail it to you when we get done talking."

"Sounds good," he says. "I'm calling because we need your expertise again for another facet of our investigation into the manufacturing operation. This time, I want you to conduct a detailed SWOT analysis for AutoEdge, and provide a brief summary of your analysis."

"I was expecting this," you say. "Some of the research I've done over the past 4 weeks will be useful as I put this analysis together for you."

"Yes, I thought you were in a good position to do this work," he says. "Your analysis may be different from other people who have been at the company longer, but your fresh perspective on the components will be helpful in moving the debate forward."

"That's a good point," you say. "I'll keep that in mind as I go through the information."

The materials found in the M.U.S.E. may help you with this assignment. Additional information is also provided in the Lessons from Experience series found at the following link:

Scenario:

 

This course uses the CTU Professional Learning Model™ (CTU PLM) to teach students with hands-on, industry-related, problem-solving experiences that model the professional environment and encourage achievements that lead to student and employer success. The CTU PLM is founded on the idea that students learn best by working on real-world, professional projects related to their chosen career fields. By working this way, students develop the expertise to apply conceptual knowledge to get effective results. Through professional learning, students experience the complexity of real-world problems and learn to select an appropriate approach to a problem that has more than one solution. This method of learning is called Problem-Based Learning (PBL). PBL assumes that you will master content while solving a meaningful problem in each assignment.

Throughout the course, you will work with a scenario in which some basic, background information is provided about a company. (This information could apply to any company that provides products or services of this sort in general.) You have a role in the scenario; that is, you are part of the story. The dialogue in each assignment presents the problem that must be solved. It is up to you to respond to the problem and submit a deliverable that will be graded.

Refer to the following scenario as you progress through the PBL process.

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Scenario: AutoEdge

AutoEdge is a leading national automotive supply company located in Detroit, Michigan. Founded by Jonathan McAlister in 1976, the company specializes in engines and transmission parts and has been supplying products to the three largest U.S.-based automakers for over 30 years. AutoEdge’s name is known by customers and leaders in the automotive industry for quality, dependability, and reliable products. In fact, despite the extra cost that is added to the automobiles, consumers appreciate the AutoEdge brand name and often make purchases because of it.

In 2005, AutoEdge’s board of directors decided that the company needed to make some drastic changes because of the high cost of labor, rigid American regulations, and increased competition from other engine and transmission part suppliers. Their solution was to gradually close all manufacturing operations in Detroit and begin outsourcing to a well-known factory in South Korea. The board reasoned that this change would allow the company to compete with the growing industry, meet the automotive manufacturing demands, and increase company profits. Some board members were skeptical about the move, however, because AutoEdge had built a reputation for high-quality, detailed craftsmanship, and they feared that transitioning the manufacturing operations overseas would cause quality to diminish.

For the next 5 years, this strategy proved successful. The company showed signs of financial growth and company profit.

However, in 2010, the company was found guilty of supplying products that failed quality tests. As a result, millions of automobiles had to be recalled. The recall was highly publicized, and the issue of poor quality products impacted negatively on American automotive companies. AutoEdge’s $51 per-share stock has fallen to $4 per share, and brand acceptance has come under scrutiny among even its most loyal customers. Although some economists blame these negative effects on the products, others believe that it had to do with the termination of AutoEdge’s Chief Executive Officer, Fred McFadden.

Lester Scholl, Chairman of the Board of Directors, has called an emergency meeting to discuss AutoEdge’s short-term and long-term strategies. Among other things, they need to discuss the possibility of continuing production overseas or returning it to the United States. Lester and others on the board are well-known for being financially conservative and risk-averse. Because the American economy is experiencing high unemployment, low interest rates, low GDP, and low inflation, it might be sensible to make the change. To some extent, they believe that these macroeconomic factors can be used to their advantage. They realize the immediate challenges such as the brand damage, the growing competition, and the financial challenges the company is facing require immediate action. A new strategy must be formulated quickly to save the company from bankruptcy.

You have been hired by AutoEdge’s board of directors as a research analyst. Primarily, your job is to list and describe some of the legal, cultural, financial, and economic factors that AutoEdge needs to consider when deciding to either stay in South Korea or return to the United States. Because Fred McFadden was recently terminated, you will work directly with the board until a new CEO is named.

 

Lessons From Experience: Forecasting With Numbers

Introduction

The story that you are about to read is from actual events that occurred in the field. Its purpose is to provide you with a real-world example from a seasoned professional in the business world.

Forecasting With Numbers

Working in the jewelry industry involves forecasting; that is, forecasting which jewelry pieces will be in demand and then determining how many to order.

While working at a jewelry company, one of my tasks was to place orders for various jewelry products for the store. But for me at that time, forecasting meant looking at last yearOs orders and then simply copying those numbers. I never gave much thought to why I was ordering what I did; I just did it. As it turned out, my orders were off the markOnot just by a little bit, but by a lot. The store got stuck with a surplus of items that eventually went on clearance

for less than what we paid for them, all because I didnOt use a financial model or take into account external factors that could have affected the jewelry items. Today, I implement many financial models and include net present value (NPV) so that I have a better understanding about what 10m ordering, and so I can be more accurate in forecasting.

It is important to take away the following from this scenario:

·         Financial models are crucial when forecasting.

·         Subjectivity and objectivity are equally important.

Unit 4 DB AME
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Per the text and assigned course readings, bullying in general and cyberbullying in particular are ongoing issues which many students today experience, often with tragic consequences. As an educator, one important job you will have is to develop safeguards against bullying in your classroom. 

Imagine that you are asked to give a presentation at a conference on a K-12 public school teacher who is preparing to cover the topic of bullying and cyberbullying in your class. To prepare for the presentation, you first have to do some research on your topic. 

Write a five to seven (5-7) page paper in which you:

  1. Define the terms “bullying” and “cyberbullying”, and specify the main difference(s) between these two terms. 
  2. Design a lesson which addresses both bullying in general and cyberbullying specifically, focusing on the following elements:
    1. Learning objectives of the lesson
    2. Measurement method(s) use to determine student learning and lesson effectiveness
    3. Description of lesson type (i.e. lecture, interactive, peer learning activity, etc.)
    4. Materials needed for the lesson
    5. Costs and funding for the lesson
  3. Use at least four (4) peer-reviewed academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and many Websites do not qualify as academic resources. Peer-reviewed academic resources refer to articles and scholarly journals that are reviewed by a panel of experts or peers in the field. View this video for more information on obtaining peer-reviewed academic resources through your Blackboard course shell.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. 

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze how educational theories and practices impact contemporary issues in education.
  • Survey and analyze issues facing the changing demographics of education.
  • Evaluate the impact of technological change on contemporary issues in education.
  • Use technology and information resources to research contemporary issues in education
  • Write clearly and concisely about contemporary issues in education using proper writing mechanics

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.

Assign C
19034

Response 1:

 

Economies of scale is an important concept for business managers. Economies of scale refers to a situation when long run average cost declines as the firm produces more output. Average cost is defined as total cost divided by the total quantity of the product produced. Therefore, average cost is the per unit cost of production. Thus, economies of scale implies that the firm’s per unit cost of production falls as the firm produces more output. The opposite of this is called diseconomies of scale. This occurs when long run average costs increase as the firm produced more output.

Experiencing economies of scale is very advantageous to business firms because it means that the firm will be able to capture a larger share of the market. Furthermore, this represents a barrier to entry because new entrants will not be able to match the low per unit cost of production enjoyed by the existing firms that already produce a large output. In the extreme case a firm might be a natural monopoly. A natural monopoly is a firm that experiences economies of scale throughout the entire range of market demand. Therefore, average cost is minimized when only a single firm produces the entire market output in the case of a natural monopoly.

As the name suggests, the way to achieve economies of scale is by increasing the scale of the business. This means increasing all of the firm’s inputs including building space and physical capital. If economies of scale are available to the firm, then increasing the scale of production will allow the firm to take advantage of the economies of scale. A larger scale of production provides increased opportunities for the specialization of labor, capital, and managerial resources, and this is a major source of economies of scale.

However, increasing the scale of production is not guaranteed to produce economies of scale, and could produce the opposite. Increasing the scale of the business could result in diseconomies of scale in which average costs increase as more output is produced. This can result from the difficulty that comes with coordinating the activities of a large organization.

AudoEdge can determine whether it is experiencing economies of scale or diseconomies of scale based on what is happening to the average cost of production as output changes. If the average cost of production is falling as more output is being produced then the firm is experiencing economies of scale, and if the average cost of production is rising as more output is produced then the firm is experiencing diseconomies of scale.

 

Response 2:

 

 Efficiency is something that every business and company should strive for. By creating an efficient environment and process, companies can focus their time and energy elsewhere to ensure they have a smooth-running business. AutoEdge needs to be operating at a high level to be able to be working at a high level of efficiency. In order to achieve this, AutoEdge should be conducting a SWOT analysis so it can determine how to better conduct their operations, thus being able to obtain economies of scale with its production.

 Investopedia (n.d.) explains that “SWOT analysis is a framework used to evaluate a company's competitive position by identifying its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Specifically, SWOT analysis is a foundational assessment model that measures what an organization can and cannot do, and its potential opportunities and threats”. By utilizing a SWOT analysis, AutoEdge can determine its position within its business community. Not just internally to the company, but also externally when it comes to their competitors. You cannot properly measure your level of output unless it is compared to that of your competition in your field. This analysis can then, in turn, help AutoEdge determine whether they have obtained economies of scale.

 The textbook (Keat, Young, & Erfle) says that “ economies of scale essentially means that a company’s average cost decreases at higher levels of output” (2013). For AutoEdge to achieve economies of scale, they would have to be efficiently producing their product to increase its level of output, so that in the long run, they can lower their average costs. Their average costs could essentially be any type of costs (i.e. operating costs or salary costs), but the overall goal is to lower AutoEdge’s average costs. By doing a SWOT analysis and measuring efficiency, AutoEdge is setting themselves up for success in the long run so they can continue to stay around for years to come. But on the other side of this, all of these measures can be used to see if AutoEdge has achieves diseconomies of scale, which simply means that costs increase as output is increased too. Basically, a company grows too large too fast and they cannot keep up with it, so they have to raise the cost per unit of whatever is being produced. But AutoEdge should have no problem determining which end of the spectrum they are on if they utilize a SWOT analysis to measure their efficiency.

2 Responses DB 3

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