Environmental Science Homework Help


Questions

# Description Question
19145

Question 1       

 

  1. Point out the implications of poor air quality on new construction for homes, businesses, and automobiles. Be careful to give specific examples.

    Your response should be at least 200 words in length. need reference

 

 

Question 2       

 

  1. Explain the phenomena of phytotoxicity as it relates to poor air quality.

    Your response should be at least 200 words in length. need reference
advanced air quality
18779

 Each week of the quarter, you will conduct an Observation of an area of your choice. Please download the Observation Report Guide Week 3Preview the document and follow the instructions. The Guide asks you to download the Observation Report FormPreview the documentView in a new window to record your observations and submit them via this page. 

Observation Report Guide

Week 3: Cycles and Flows

 

1. Return to the same spot where you observed last week.  

2. Conduct an observation for at least thirty minutes.

First, calm yourself for at least three minutes. The Easy Guide to Nature Observation has some good ideas for preparing yourself to observe.  [If you’re pressed for time, skip down to the section “Practice Sensory Awareness”.]

The second week, take notes that describe the following:

a.       What examples do you see of flows of energy? Describe at least two of them in some detail. For example, if an automobile goes by, what kind of energy is involved in its motion? Where did it obtain this energy?

b. What plants do you see? What kind of energy are they using in their life processes?

c. Now look for and describe at least two examples of the cycle of materials. Describe them in some detail.

d. What impacts of human activity upon natural energy flows and cycles did you notice?

e. Feel free to describe other aspects as well.

Important: Consult the Rubric on the assignment page to see how your report will be graded. Note that for the best grade you must not only describe what you see but also

·         refer to the week’s readings,

·         draw some conclusions about your observations, and

·         connect those conclusions clearly with the main themes of the course: the flow of energy, the cycle of materials, and the interconnection of all life.

3. Complete the Observation Report Form and submit it by the deadline.

Observation Report Form

Name: ___________________________________________ Date: ______________ Time: ___________

Place: ________________________________________________________________________________

Weather conditions: ____________________________________________________________________

Specific observations for this week [determined by each week’s assignment]:

a.____________________________  ____________________________________________________

b.____________________________ ____________________________________________________

c.____________________________  ____________________________________________________

d.____________________________ ____________________________________________________

e.____________________________ ____________________________________________________

 

Other observations:

 

 

 

 

Conclusions:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Observation Report
18765

Unit VIII Assignment

This assignment involves completing two exercises, and the purpose is for you to apply the safety and health management systems approach to workplace ergonomics.

Exercise 1: Relating Countermeasure Strategies

Discuss the 10 generic countermeasure strategies proposed by Haddon as they relate to an incident that might have occurred on your worksite, or relate the countermeasures to something you have observed.

The 10 generic countermeasures are listed below:

(a) Prevent the initial buildup of energy.

(b) Reduce the potential energy.

(c) Prevent the release of the energy.

(d) Reduce the rate of release of energy.

(e) Separate the host from the energy source.

(f) Place a barrier between the host and energy source.

(g) Absorb the energy.

(h) Strengthen the susceptible host.

(i) Move rapidly in detect and counter the release.

(j) Take procedures to ameliorate the damage.

Your response should be at least 300 words in length.

Exercise 2: Applying the Safety and Health Management Systems Approach to Workplace Ergonomics

This question involves reading the following passage, choosing one side of the debate, and then defending your choice by providing your rationale. Read the following passage and then decide who is at fault: the company or the employee.

Our truck driver, Ben, injures his back while tying down the tarps on his flatbed trailer. He has to use four-inch straps to secure the load, and then has to cover the load with tarps which require the use of bungee cords (rubber straps) to secure the tarp.

Either defend the company and decide that the root cause for the back injury was due to the failure of the employee to properly follow the processes and procedures, or defend the employee and decide that the root cause of the back injury was due to the failure of the company to provide a hazard-free workplace. To successfully answer this question, you might have to do a bit of research. Consider the following sources: the OSHA standards, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) rules, and the textbook. Use APA Style to insert appropriate citations into your response. Your response should be at least 300 words in length.

Page 2 of 2

Essay Questions
18748

This is a graded discussion: 20 points possible

 

due Jul 6

 

Salmon Farming and Environmental Justice

 

11 unread reply.11 reply.

 

Now that you understand what environmental justice is, you can decide whether and how the salmon farming situation in British Columbia involves any kind of environmental injustice. In the lab we viewed a video from one of the organizations opposed to current forms of the practice. First be sure to familiarize yourself with the viewpoints of the First Nations peoples, as linked from the Resources for Salmon Farming Lab page . Then consider these websites from other organizations that are involved in the controversy, both locally and worldwide.  

 

The Global Alliance Against Industrial Aquaculture (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

 

Ecumenical Ministries of Oregon's fact sheet: "Sustainable and Fair Trade Salmon (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site."  [will open as a PDF]

 

 "Fishy Business: the Economics of Salmon Farming in BC" (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. [will open as a PDF]

 

 Finally post your responses to these questions.

 

1. Which groups of people are the main contenders in this situation? 

 

2. If you were an advocate of environmental justice, which of these groups express a position that you could support? How would you justify your support for that position? 

 

3. How do you see the main themes of this course expressed in that position?

Your response to all three questions must total 200 words.

Salmon Farming and Environmental Justice
18668

ou will prepare an APA-style research paper to discuss energy topics, as follows: 

  • In your own words, describe the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics.   
  • Explain how these scientific laws apply to energy use, energy conversions, and the need for energy efficiency.   
  • Describe the pros and cons of the following energy types, writing 1 paragraph for each:   
    • Fossil fuel: Oil, natural gas, and coal   
    • Nuclear energy   
    • Solar energy   
    • Wind power   
    • Water (hydro) power

      APA-style research paper to discuss energy topics, as follows:

      · In your own words, describe the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. 

      · Explain how these scientific laws apply to energy use, energy conversions, and the need for energy efficiency. 

      · Describe the pros and cons of the following energy types, writing 1 paragraph for each: 

      · Fossil fuel: Oil, natural gas, and coal 

      · Nuclear energy 

      · Solar energy 

      · Wind power 

      · Water (hydro) power 

      In the United States, 29% of all of the energy consumed is used for transportation; this is second only to electricity generation (39%). Watch this short video on using algae for producing fuel: Energy 101 | Algae-to-Fuels . 

      · Which characteristics make algae the most competitive as a fuel source? Which make it the most environmentally friendly? 

      · With what you have learned in assessing the pros and cons of other energy sources, how does fuel from algae compare?

Environmental Science Question
18475

Please respond to the following:According to the text, modern development has provided many benefits and challenges regarding population health. In your opinion, what aspect of modern living represents the most significant threat to the health of the world’s population? Recommend a strategy an organization or government agency can take to reduce the threat of the lifestyle practice you identified. Provide support for your recommendation.

Responsible Lifestyles" discussion week 10
18472

Building on the scenario in Assignments 1 and 2, you are in the final stages of preparing for your presentation at the conference on environment health issues.

Create an eight to ten (8-10) slide PowerPoint presentation in which you:

1. Examine the role of global organizations in managing environmental health issues. Determine two (2) specific ethical concerns these organizations face in safeguarding the health of a global society. Support your analysis.

2. Evaluate the primary negative effects of modern farming on population health. Provide two (2) examples of best practices in the farming industry developed in the private sector to help reduce the health threats associated with industrialized farming. Justify your response.

3. Identify the purpose of epidemiologic research in the study of environmental health issues. Provide a specific example of how epidemiology has been used to manage a recent public health threat. Support your response.

4. Select one (1) environmental hazard that you think represents the most significant health risk to a specific population group. Propose a solution that an organization or industry could develop in the private sector to help eliminate or reduce this risk.

5. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia does not qualify as an academic resource.Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements:

a. Be creative in your design so that is appealing to others

b. Ensure that all of the criteria are covered.

c. Create bulleted speaking notes for your presentation to the shareholders in the Notes section of the PowerPoint. Note: You may create or assume any fictitious names, data, or scenarios that have not been established in this assignment for a realistic flow of communication.

d. Use a professional technically written style to graphically convey the information.

e. Include a reference slide. Citations and references must follow APA format. The reference slide is not included in the required presentation length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

*Examine the opportunities for improvement within environmental health based organizations.

*Explain the role of organizations can have on improving environmental health along the impediments presented.

*Determine the skill sets needed to address current administrative needs within food production.

*Apply best practices of environmental health organizations to a scenario that is reflective of real concerns.

*Use technology and information resources to research issue in environmental health management.

*Write clearly and concisely about social environmental health management using proper writing mechanics.

Assignment 3: The Effects of Modern Development on the Health of the Population "week 10"
18402

video link

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgYwq2SAs-w&feature=youtu.be&hd=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DtWAMKRk6A&feature=youtu.be&hd=1

Climate Change Experiment LAB — Questions

Overview

Educated citizens need to understand how scientific investigations are done and how results and conclusions are reported in order to make informed decisions.  What is experimental evidence?  What is hypothesis testing?  How do scientists evaluate data and draw conclusions?  Educated citizens also need a basic understanding of climate change. In this lab, we are going to watch a video fieldtrip of the Asymmetric Warming Experiment at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Corvallis, which uses precision climate-controlled chambers called “terracosms”.  After watching the video, you will answer questions to help guide you through understanding how the experiment was designed. The purpose of this lab is to refresh your memory and understanding of the scientific method and ecology while learning how scientists study climate change.

 

BE ORIGINAL! Remember to use your own words and do not copy verbatim from any online, previous or current student source. By submitting this assignment, you are agreeing to the following statement: “I understand that my paper will be checked against multiple sources for original content. A report will be generated that shows if content in this paper matches content in documents available on the Internet, in many print journals, and a database of other papers submitted by students. If submitted to the instructor, my paper will be added to the student database for comparison of future OSU papers against it. I maintain ownership of the original intellectual property created in this paper. I understand that results of this report may be used by the University in student conduct proceedings related to academic dishonesty (See Canvas Start Here module for more information)” Turnitin generates a report that highlights any potentially unoriginal text in your paper, including text from previous students’ or current students’ submissions.

 

Assignment

Watch the virtual field trip to EPA terracosms, and use the information to answer the questions below.

 

Link to virtual field trip:

https://courses.ecampus.oregonstate.edu/index.php?video=soil102/terracosm_fieldtrip.mp4

 


Reflection (2 pts)

Reflect back on last week’s work. Please use complete sentences!

a) Identify one thing you did well.  Be specific and use an example.

Type answer here

 

b) Identify one thing you could improve upon. Be specific and use an example.

Type answer here

 

Part 1: Hypothesis Development (21 Points)

 

1.1  (3 pts) Refer back to the lab background and field trip video to answer the following questions. Figure 1 may be helpful.

a)  Describe what is asymmetric warming.

      Type answer here.

 

b)   Describe what is symmetric warming.

      Type answer here.

 

c)   How are they different from each other? How are they similar?

      Type answer here.

 

1.2 (2 pts) Use Figure 1 to answer the following questions.

Figure 1. Terracosm air temperatures over a 24-hour period from 6am – 6am.

a) Which of the warming treatments is warmer in the afternoon (noon – 6pm)?

      Type answer here.

 

b) Which of the warming treatments is warmer at night (midnight – 6am)?

      Type answer here.

 

Photosynthesis tends to increase with warming up to an optimal temperature, and then decrease with additional warming (Figure 2). Respiration does not have a temperature optimum; it tends to increase exponentially with temperature (until a plant becomes stressed or dies; Figure 2).

Figure 2. Temperature response curves for photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R).

The balance of photosynthesis and respiration affect how much a plant grows. If a plant can photosynthesize more carbon than it respires, it will have a surplus of carbon it can use to make new tissue. But if a plant respires most of the carbon it photosynthesizes just to maintain its current tissue, it cannot grow more. Thus, if a plant can increase photosynthesis and not increase respiration, it will grow more.  However, if respiration increases and photosynthesis does not, it will grow less. 

 

Consider another scenario as a metaphor.  If a human child gets enough food (photosynthesis) to support their activity level (respiration) they will grow normally.  However, if their activity level increases (respiration) without also increasing food intake (photosynthesis) they will not grow.  In plants, temperature affects their rate of food intake (photosynthesis) as well as ‘activity’ (respiration).  If temperature increases too much, photosynthesis cannot make up for the losses due to respiration. 

 

In the following section, you will be asked a series of short questions in order to guide you into answering the following, more in depth question. 

 

1.3 (4 pts) Warming in the morning

a) What temperature is typical at 7a in the morning? (Figure 1)

      Type answer here.

 

b) When temperatures are low (< 10oC), does photosynthesis or respiration increase faster (Figure 2)?

      Type answer here.

 

 

c) Would a temperature increase from 5 to 10oC in the morning (6a-noon) lead to a greater increase in photosynthesis or in respiration?

      Type answer here.

 

 

d) If global warming is causing the largest temperature increases to occur in the morning (i.e., the cooler part of the day), would you predict plants to grow more, less, or the same amount compared to their growth before warming?

      Type answer here.

 

 

1.4 (4 pts) Warming in the afternoon

a) What temperature is typical in the afternoon (noon-6p)? (Figure 1)

      Type answer here.

 

b) When temperatures are high (i.e., 25oC) does photosynthesis or respiration increase faster (look carefully at the photosynthesis curve in Figure 2)?

      Type answer here.

 

c) Would a temperature increase in the afternoon (from 20 to 25oC) when temperatures are high lead to a greater increase in photosynthesis or respiration?

      Type answer here.

 

d) If global warming is causing the largest temperature increases to occur in the afternoon (i.e., the hottest part of the day), would you expect plants to grow more or less than they did before warming? Explain your prediction.      

      Type answer here.

 

1.5 (3 pts) Warming at night

a) What temperature is typical at night (midnight-6a; a range is fine)?

      Type answer here.

 

b) Would both photosynthesis and respiration respond to a temperature change at night? Consider carefully whether both photosynthesis and respiration occur at night.

      Type answer here.

 

c) If global warming is causing the largest temperature increases to occur at night, would you expect plants to grow more or less than they did before warming? Explain your prediction.

        Type answer here.

 

1.6 (3 pts) Formulating hypotheses

Below are the three alternative hypotheses that Dr. Jillian Gregg tested in the Asymmetric Warming study. Provide at least one reason each hypothesis might be expected to be true, based on your responses above. Consider how temperature affects both photosynthesis and respiration.

 

a) Hypothesis 1: Plants will grow more under asymmetric warming than under symmetric warming.

      Type answer here.

 

 

b) Hypothesis 2: Plants will grow less under asymmetric than symmetric warming.

      Type answer here.

 

c) Hypothesis 3: Plants will grow similar amounts under asymmetric and symmetric warming.

      Type answer here.

 

1.7 (2 pts) A hypothesis is different from an ordinary prediction because it is both testable and falsifiable.

 

a) Explain how the hypotheses above are testable.

      Type answer here.

 

b) Explain how the hypotheses above are falsifiable.

      Type answer here.

Text Box: Figure 3. View of the 12 terracosm chambers.

 
 


Part 2: Experimental Design (11 Points)

 

 

2.1 (2 pts) Jillian Gregg decided that the best way to test between her hypotheses was with an experimental study. What are the key differences between an experimental study and an observational study (note that you make observations in both…)??

            Type answer here.

 

2.2 (3 pts) Identify:

 

a)      which treatment was the control group in the experiment?

      Type answer here.

 

b)      which treatment or treatments was a manipulated group in the experiment?

      Type answer here.

 

c)      which variable was manipulated in the asymmetric warming study?

      Type answer here.

 

2.3 (2 pts) Replication is critical for any experimental study. In this experiment:

 

a) How many replicates were there for each group?

      Type answer here.

 

b) Why is it important to have replication in this experiment?

      Type answer here.

 

 

2.4 (2 pts) The hypotheses listed above are only concerned with comparing asymmetric and symmetric warming. Explain why you think Jillian Gregg included the ambient terracosm chambers.

            Type answer here.

 

 

2.5 (2 pts) If you were to develop an observational study to test Jillian Gregg’s hypotheses, how might you go about it? Note: do not say that you would observe the chambers. Make sure your answer here is consistent with your answer in 2.1, above.

            Type answer here.


 

Part 3: Ecology (12 Points)

 

Figure 4 shows Jillian constructing the terracosm soils, and the grasses and wildflowers shortly after they were transplanted from the green house. Any ecological experiment involves trade-offs: the more controlled an experiment is, the more certain one can be that differences between groups are from the experimental manipulation and not just from natural variability, but the less confident one is that the results are relevant to real-world conditions. Jillian Gregg indicated that terracosms are more realistic than manipulating potted plants in growth chambers.

 

 

Figure 4. The terracosm chambers during the construction process. Left: filling the belowground compartments with soil and buring soil moisture sensors. Right: transplanted seedlings during the first year.

 
Description: P1000156

Description: 18112228

Description: 18112309

 

 

 

3.1 (3 pts) Identify at least three things about the terracosms that make them more realistic than potted plants grown indoors.

Type answer here.

 

 

3.2 (3 pts) Name at least three features of the terracosm that made this study more artificial, and less ecologically realistic, than a completely open environment.

Type answer here.

 

 


 

Figure 5 shows plant size (as indicated by leaf area index (LAI)) of each treatment over six years. In 2012, growth was limited because the spring was unusually cool.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Text Box: Figure 5. Plant size indicated by leaf area index (LAI), 2007-2012. NS means there was no statistical difference between the treatments. Letters a,b,c indicate treatments that were statistically different. In 2010 the two elevated temperature treatments had more leaf area than ambient but were not different from each other. In 2011-2012, all three treatments were different from each other.

 

 

 

 

3.3 (3 pts) Consider Figure 5 to answer the following questions.

a)  Do you think this system is reaching a stable (equilibrium) state, or do you think that it is still unstable and unpredictable due to all the disturbance caused by creating the chambers?

      Type answer here.

 

b)      What do you see in the graph that supports your reasoning?

      Type answer here.

 

c)      Why would that indicate either a stable or unstable condition? (Note: There is more than one right answer here; simply explain your observations and reasoning.)

      Type answer here.

 

3.4 (3 pts) What is the appropriate scope of inference of this experiment? In other words, how far can we generalize the results--Can we generalize beyond the terracosms to grasslands of the Willamette Valley? To all grasslands? To all natural ecosystems?

Type answer here.

 

Synthesis and Relevance (4pts)

In climate change science and policy, the concept of resilience is gaining importance.  Put simply, resilience is the ability to maintain key functions and essential stability despite profound disturbance; in essence it is the tool that enables a system to be sustainable.  Reflect on the concept of resilience as you answer the questions below:

 

a) One solution proposed for preserving species threatened by climate change is to physically relocate them to more favorable areas as their native range becomes uninhabitable.  Do you think the terracosm experiment indicates Willamette Valley prairies will need to be relocated, or will be resilient to projected climate change? Explain, referring to specific elements of the experiment and data you saw above.

Type answer here.

 

b) Willamette Valley prairies are imperiled, even without climate change, and are actively managed for threatened and endangered species.  Climate change resilience includes the idea that we need a diverse ecological landscape to maintain ecosystem services we depend upon as the climate system changes, these prairies being one example.  Can you name three ecosystem services these prairies provide that may help human communities be more resilient to climate change?

Type answer here.

 

lab assignment need in 24 hours
18032

How much of the problems related to environmental concerns are based on social structures of society, on businesses that dominate our economic system, and on members of society whose beliefs, values, and norms are not sympathetic to making social change in their lifestyles? What effect will underdeveloped nations have on the world’s environment if they develop their economies and enjoy a burgeoning middle class like those of developed nations? Should anything be done about this?

What consequences has the belief of individualism brought to bear on the environment in general? Do people have the right to do whatever they want to the Earth?

250 word minimum, 10 points

problems related to environmental concerns
17999

You will write and submit a proposal for your course project. Your proposal should be 1-2 pages in length and meet APA formatting and citation requirements.

 

Your proposal should include the following items:

 

Selected Topic

Description of Topic

Body systems addressed by this topic

Resource Assessment

Provide a summary of two academic resources you will use to research your topic, These can be books, articles in scientific journals, websites

Explain any additional resources you will use to support your research, for example you may work in a related field and use your expertise or the expertise of a colleague or friend.

Retrospective Analysis

Explain the significance of this topic to health sciences in the future- impact on careers in the field, new technologies, new job opportunities related to this topic.

 

 

 

Topic;

How environmental pollution affects respiratory physiology.

 

You will write and submit a proposal for your course project. Your proposal should be 1-2 pages in length and meet APA formatting and citation requirements.

 

Your proposal should include the following items:

 

Selected Topic

Description of Topic

Body systems addressed by this topic

Resource Assessment

Provide a summary of two academic resources you will use to research your topic, These can be books, articles in scientific journals, websites

Explain any additional resources you will use to support your research, for example you may work in a related field and use your expertise or the expertise of a colleague or friend.

Retrospective Analysis

Explain the significance of this topic to health sciences in the future- impact on careers in the field, new technologies, new job opportunities related to this topic.

How environmental pollution affects respiratory physiology.
17966

Using the scenario in Assignment 1, you are continuing to prepare for your presentation at the global conference on environmental health issues.

Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you:

1. Select a specific method of energy production. Determine the most significant health risk associated with the production of this energy source, and recommend a process improvement that could significantly reduce the level of risk associated with the current method of production. Support your recommendation.

2. Examine the major global health issues related to climate change. Propose a model that governments of developed countries could build upon to mitigate the negative effects of climate change on health and the environment. Provide a rationale recommendation.

3. Evaluate the health risks associated with the waste produced during the manufacturing of products. Determine two (2) ethical concerns related to these practices, and propose a strategy to modify the current practices to resolve these issues.

4. Provide a detailed outline of three (3) key government regulations created to protect the population and the environment from the effects of hazardous waste produced from manufacturing.

5. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia does not qualify as an academic resource.

6.Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements:

a. Typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides.

b. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required page length.

c. Include a reference page. Citations and references must follow APA format. The reference page is not included in the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

*Assess the role of ethics in environmental health administration.

*Evaluate the role of government agencies in production of goods and offer a private sector solution.

*Evaluate the role of government agencies in the production of energy and offer a private sector solution.

*Use technology and information resources to research issue in environmental health management.

*Write clearly and concisely about social environmental health management using proper writing mechanics.

 

 

Assignment: 1

 Population Health and the Environment

Jameshia Dixon

07/25/2018

Dr.Coon


 Population Health and the Environment

            Population health and environment is constantly becoming a matter of concern in everybody since natural resources and public health are adversely affected by factors such as an increase in population and poverty, and diseases among others. Therefore, for any given community to achieve a sustainable development there is the need to ensure that there is an understanding of the connection between population, health, and the environment without forgetting to tackle the socio-economic context in which they occur (Steenkamer, Drewes, Heijink, Baan & Struijs, 2017). Elsewhere, there is the need for public health professionals and the governments of the day to work together to ensure that specific projects regarding population, health, and environment are established to the complex connection between human beings, their personal health and the environment in which they exist. Doing this will simultaneously increase and improve an access to health care services while at the same time helping communities to manage natural resources around them. This initiative enables them to improve their health as well as their livelihoods while at the same time conserving the critical ecosystems that they largely depend on for their survival. This paper provides comprehensive answers to question regarding population, health and the environment.

Question I

            It is evident that environmental health research uses four principal methods of research such as epidemiology, risk assessment, risk awareness and risk management. By using epidemiology, the health care providers engage in a quantitative research by primarily focusing on the determinants as well as the distribution of health outcomes in any given community or population under study. Furthermore, this method is used in documenting health effects and their relationship with environmental hazards. Elsewhere, epidemiological studies can be used by healthcare practitioners to study a broad range of hazards that may include social factors that affect the health of a given population or hazardous chemical in the environment (Steenkamer et al., 2017). Therefore, one needs to realize that epidemiological studies increase awareness and understanding of how increased exposure to hazards affect the health status of a community by looking at the research findings as well as how an exposure to environmental hazards can adversely impact the whole community.

            Healthcare practitioners use risk assessment methods in conducting environmental health studies as well as how hazards affect the wellness of a population. Risk assessment is an applied science method with a set of procedures that are used for integrating and evaluating gathered scientific information regarding toxicity and exposure to environmental hazards and their risk to the public health. This method is vital in creating and increasing awareness among the community members with regards to increased exposure to environmental hazards thus enabling them to avoid contacts or exposure to chemicals that might have an adverse effect on their overall health.

            Public health officials use risk communication method to avail vital information to the members of the public about the potential problems associated with certain hazards within the environment. This is a scientific method or approach for communicating effectively and efficiently to the community about any given situation of high concern or high risk to the community. By using this method, the participants or the members of the community are made aware of the risks associated with certain environmental hazards thus creating awareness of their potential danger which in return reduces the chances of the population getting in contact with the said hazards. Furthermore, the community is made aware of the hazards and involved participate in policy-making processes regarding environmental hazards.

            In many cases, public health officials use a risk management method to determine what environmental health risks exist and device a way to manage them in a way that protects both human health and the environment. This method evaluates how best to protect the public health by determining how much of a substance is disposed of into the water basin and the effect it has on the aquatic environment as well as the human health (Steenkamer et al., 2017). Equally, using this method enables public health officials to determine and decide which substance ought to be stored in a hazardous waste disposal facility so as to avoid contact with the human population within a given area. By using this method, the public health officials are able to create awareness and increase an understanding of how exposure to toxic substances or hazards may affect the community by providing vital information on the potential health risks and ecological risks thus reducing the possibility of the public getting into contact with the hazards.

Question III

There are three ways that researchers evaluate the danger of environmental hazards on a given population. These include prioritizing and scoring risks, risk probability and impact, and ranking. All the mentioned methods prove to be useful in evaluating the danger of an identified hazard to the community. These methods can be used to evaluate an already exposed community by:

·         Prioritizing and scoring risk can be used by researchers to reach a consensus on the level of risk associated with the identified environmental hazards. By doing this researchers can assess and evaluate the impact of the risk as low, medium or high but may agree on the actual score for mapping purposes.

·         By using the risk probability and impact method, the researchers may carry out risk impact analysis of the effect of the chosen hazards. It is a useful method in evaluating the potential impact of the exposure to hazards in a given community or population. This can be done by examining the selected representatives of the community.

·         By using the ranking approach, researchers will be able to evaluate the level of risks based on the identified hazards’ exposure. This is done by considering the consequences of each risk as well as the probability of its occurrence.

 

Question III

There are various health risks that are present in the natural environment. These include but not limited to poor sanitation and hygiene, tobacco smoking and unsafe drinking water. Poor sanitation and hygiene have adverse effects on human health in the sense that it causes a number of diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, schistosomiasis, and trachoma among others. Poor sanitation and hygiene lead to the degradation of the urban environment whereby there is the rampant disposal of untreated human waste in water bodies leading to waterborne diseases. Elsewhere, every community if fighting for the control of tobacco smoking due to the obvious reason that smoking of cigarettes leads to cancers and another disease (Steenkamer et al., 2017). Moreover, many people have been victims of secondary smoking causing them to contract diseases that have cost them quite a fortune. It is obvious that smoking causes a wide range of respiratory diseases by damaging the airways. On the other hand, unsafe drinking water has been one of the leading causes of deaths in Africa and other parts of the world. It is estimated that the world loses close to eight hundred and forty thousand people each year as a result of drinking contaminated water. Unsafe drinking water causes gastrointestinal infections, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, and typhoid causing deaths of thousands of people (Yavinsky, Lamere, Patterson & Bremner, 2015). One example of three specific dangers to human health in daily lives is the degradation of the environment. This is because all the mentioned health risks result in the erosion of the natural environment that supports human life.

Question IV

It is evident that infectious diseases are the leading cause of deaths and disabilities in the United States and other parts of the world. Furthermore, the historical facts reveal that infectious diseases are increasingly threatening the public health both in the United States and elsewhere and substantially contribute to the escalation of healthcare costs. Therefore, in this regard, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention plays a significant part in supporting health promotions, preventions and preparedness through the creation of awareness about infectious diseases so as to improve the overall public health. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention works in partnership with different levels of government right from the federal to the local level to monitor and prevent the outbreak of infectious diseases in the United States. Furthermore, it implements disease prevention strategies as well as maintaining national health statistics. Equally, the CDC educates the public on how to recognize and avoid contracting infectious diseases as well as increasing surveillance and reforming health policies (Yavinsky et al., 2015. One of the most significant environmental hazards that prove to be a challenge to the CDC is the prevalence of chemicals in the air. For instance, it is evident that nearly all American citizens who drive to and from work use vehicles that burn fossil fuels to propel their engines. This causes carbon emission into the air leading to quite a number of diseases associated with the trapping of solar energy. For instance, it is factual that an increased exposure to carbon emission causes respiratory allergies such as asthma.


Reference

Steenkamer, B. M., Drewes, H. W., Heijink, R., Baan, C. A., & Struijs, J. N. (2017). Defining population health management: a scoping review of the literature. Population health management20(1), 74-85.

Yavinsky, R. W., Lamere, C., Patterson, K. P., & Bremner, J. (2015). The impact of population health and environment projects: a synthesis of the evidence.

 

 

 

 

 

Assignment 2: Health Risks, Manufacturing, and the Production Energy Due Week 8
17796

Instructions: The movie Interstellar  is based on the premise of trying to find another habitable planet  after ours has become inhabitable. From the knowledge you have gained  from this class, discuss the following:

  • What  aspects of this new planet would you look for to ensure the  survivability of our species? Some of the specifics you may want to  discuss are: 
    • Size and age of the planet
    • Atmosphere of the planet
    • The distance of the planet to its Sun
    • The type of Sun the planet orbits
    • Oceans of the planet
    • Any life that may already be on this planet
    • Moons of this planet

Watch Video Interstellar Movie - Official Trailer 2 Duration: (2:34)
User: interstellarmovie1 - Added: 7/31/14 YouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rt2LHkSwdPQ 

 

 

Make sure to:

  • Write a short essay or paragraph of at least 300 words. 
  • Use concrete examples/details and avoid generalities.
  • Address all questions.
  • Use proper grammar and punctuation.
  • If you researched your topic and are using information from what you learned, remember to cite your sources.
  • Do not plagiarize.
  • You will not be able to edit your assignment once you post, so please proofread and spell check before hitting post!
  • As part of the assignment, you must also reply to ONE of your classmates with at least 150 words. You will have to POST FIRST to  see your classmates' postings. Make sure your replies are a thoughtful  and relevant to what your classmate has posted. Try to build the  discussion and keep it going.
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 300 WORD DISCUSSION
17730

For this essay, take up to 4 pages to evaluate their potential for fixing the world by comparing and contrasting any two solutions, including the Transition Towns, degrowth economy , ecosocialism.

Please write about Transition Towns and degrowth.

List of readings can be used as references in the essay.

 

What is Degrowth?

 We will entertain the notion that less economic production could lead to a vastly better world, especially in the wealthy countries of the global North.

Readings:

Life in a ‘degrowth’ economy, and why you might actually enjoy it

https://theconversation.com/life-in-a-degrowth-economy-and-why-you-might-actually-enjoy-it-32224

Riccardo Mastini, “Work in a World without Growth” (June 6, 2018), https://www.resilience.org/stories/2018-06-06/work-in- a-world-without-growth/

Jonathan Rutherford, “How Do You Degrow an Economy, Without Causing Chaos?” (May 15, 2017), http://www.resilience.org/stories/2017-05-15/how-do-you- degrow-an-economy-without-causing-chaos/ 

 

Transition Towns from Totnes to Toledo

 We will introduce the concept of a Just Transition and explore one set of alternative models for the future: the local visions of sustainable transition towns and resilient eco-villages found all over the world.

Please take at least 10-15 minutes to explore these websites: Transition United States –

http://www.transitionus.org/about-us

Common Transition Primer website:

https://primer.commonstransition.org/

Global Ecovillage Network –

http://gen.ecovillage.org/en/article/what-ecovillage

Readings:

Ester Alloun and Samuel Alexander, “The Transition Movement: Questions of Diversity, Power, and Affluence,” Simplicity Institute (August 2014), http://www.resilience.org/stories/2014-08-18/the- transition-movement-questions-of-diversity-power-and-affluence/

Naresh Giangrande, “Seven Lessons on Starting a Worldwide Movement for Change” (February 9, 2018), http://www.resilience.org/stories/2018-02-09/seven-lessons-on- starting-a-worldwide-movement-for-change/

Rob Hopkins and Ted Trainer, “Always the Same, Always Different” (June 14, 2018), https://www.resilience.org/stories/2018-06- 14/always-the-same-always-different-a-response-to-ted-trainer/

Stephanie Van Hook, “What is Transition?” (March 14, 2017),

http://www.resilience.org/stories/2017-03-14/what-is-transition/

 Please explore the movie’s website, which is rich in content, solutions, and ideas for this class:

https://www.demain-lefilm.com/en/film

Readings:

Rob Hopkins, “The unstoppable rise of ‘Demain’” (February 5, 2016), http://www.resilience.org/stories/2016-02-05/the-unstoppable-rise-of- demain

 

 

 

 

Comparing And Contrasting Essay( ecosocialism)
17600

 In this forum answer the following questions, 1)what is one important way to reduce the risk of accidental poisoning in the home? 2) Think about your home right now…..what are 3 things you should change to reduce this risk? 3) If you have kids and/or pets, what were two things that you did  to reduce this risk? (Note: Even if you do not have kids/pets, pretend that you do, you must still answer this question.)

 

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

I.       Environmental Health

A. People often affect the environment in ways that can have an impact on their health.

B.     The study of the effects of environmental factors on humans and the effects of humans on their environments is called environmental health.

C.     Until products containing CFCs were banned in 1979, these chemicals contributed to the depletion of the earth's ozone layer.

D.     People in industrialized nations like the United States produce millions of tons of municipal solid waste (garbage) each year.

E.      This waste ends up in landfills and may release toxic chemicals that seep into water supplies, polluting them.

F.      Many of the toxic chemicals present in the home, workplace, or outdoor environments affect health.

G.     Toxic chemicals result in poisoning (toxicity) that damages body tissues and affects bodily functions.

H.     Skin inflammation, asthma, lung disease, and immune system disorders may result from exposure to toxic chemicals.

II. Environmental Health in and Around the Home

A.     Poisoning

1.      Most human poisonings in 2011 occurred in the home

2.      Approximately 84 of poisonings were unintentional, which included medication errors, bites and stings, food poisonings, and occupational mishaps.

3.      In 2012, poisoning occurred in children under the age of 6 approximately 44 of the time.

4.      Suspect poisoning in a person who becomes ill suddenly with symptoms that affect many body systems, appears drowsy or indifferent, or exhibits bizarre behavior.

5.      If poisoning is suspected, one should call the local poison control center for instructions.

6.      Refer students to the Managing Your Health box, "Tips to Prevent Poisonings"

7.      Toxic Plants

a.       Some common plants or parts of plants that are toxic include holly berries, morning-glory seeds, narcissus, daffodil bulbs, rhubarb leaves, and sweet pea seeds.

b.      Other poisonous plants include hemlock, jimson weed, dieffenbachia, philodendron, and mountain laurel.

c.       Poinsettia is not toxic.


 

d.      Houseplants and cut flowers should be kept out of the reach of children.

e.       1-2 of mushroom species are toxic.

8.      Ingestion of Household Cleaning Aids, Medications, and Vitamins

a.       Children under 5 years of age are at most danger of being poisoned from ingesting household cleaning aids, and over-the-counter and prescription drugs and vitamins.

b.      The Federal Hazardous Substances Act, passed in 1966, has been helpful in lowering the incidence of poisoning in children by controlling the concentration of toxic chemicals in household products.

c.       The Poisoning Prevention Packaging Act of 1972 established standards for the packaging of potentially harmful household products and medications.

d.      The use of warning stickers such as Mr. Yuk has not lowered the incidence of poisoning in children.

e.       All potentially poisonous substances should be kept in locked cabinets.

f.       Children can become poisoned by accidental overdoses of certain vitamins and minerals.

g.       Adults can become poisoned by taking intentional overdoses of these dietary supplements.

9.      Lead Poisoning

a.       In the United States, lead poisoning is still a health problem in children, even though many sources of lead, such as leaded gasoline, leaded solder in food and drink cans, and leaded paint, have been eliminated.

b.      Lead poisoning is serious because it affects the central nervous system and can cause coma, convulsions, and even death.

c.       While adults absorb about 11  of lead reaching the digestive tract, children absorb from 30 to 75. When lead is inhaled, up to 50 is absorbed.

d.      Certain ceramic ware can have high levels of lead that can leach out of the dishes and into food.

e.       Car batteries contain lead and some pipes that bring water into households have lead-based solder.

f.       Although lead is not in gasoline, the soil surrounding roads often still contains lead from past emissions.

g.       Dwellings built before 1978 were frequently painted with lead-based paint that

can create leaded dust.

h.This dust can be inhaled or the paint can be eaten by children, poisoning them. 1. Lead-based paints must be carefully removed from homes by special means.

J.        Although deaths resulting from lead poisoning are rare, low levels of lead in the blood are associated with decreased intelligence, learning disabilities, impaired nervous system development, and delayed or stunted growth.

10.  Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

a.       Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that can kill.

b.      The incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels-such as coal, oil, wood, natural gas, charcoal, and gasoline-produces carbon monoxide.


 

c.       Fires are a major source of carbon monoxide poisoning.

d.      Automobile exhaust, malfunctioning furnaces, charcoal fires, gasoline powered tools, wood stoves, fireplaces, unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, gas­cooking ovens and stoves, and tobacco smoke are all sources of carbon monoxide.

e.      To avoid carbon monoxide poisoning, one should use charcoal grills and gas­powered engines or tools in well-ventilated areas.

f.       Do not leave a car running in an attached garage where fumes can leak into the house.

g.       Carbon monoxide sensors are available for home use.

h.      Carbon monoxide kills because it binds to hemoglobin in blood, interfering with hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen.

1.      The signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include progressively worsening headache, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, a cherry-red skin color, and blurry vision.

B.     Inhalation of Asbestos Fibers

1.      Asbestos is a fiber-like mineral that resists damage by fire or other natural processes.

2.      Long-term inhalation of microscopic asbestos fibers can result in asbestosis, lung cancer, and stomach cancer.

3.      In 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned all asbestos products by 1996.

4.      Intact asbestos poses no health risk; the danger occurs when products that contain asbestos deteriorate or become damaged or disturbed.

5.      Under these conditions, asbestos fibers are released and become airborne.

6.      Asbestos removal requires trained, certified personnel who can do this job safely and properly.

C.     Electromagnetic Radiation

1.      The effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation have been studied extensively.

2.      ELF is a type of electromagnetic radiation, electric and magnetic fields of energy, that travels at the speed of light through atmosphere, such as sunlight.

3.      X-rays, UV light, infrared light, and radio waves are forms of electromagnetic radiation.

4.      Extremely low frequency radiation is the type of radiation emitted by electric power lines, electrical distribution substations, video display terminals, televisions, electric blankets, microwave ovens, cell phones, and electrical appliances.

5.      So far, most scientists see no major negative effects of ELF radiation and no reason to

recommend extreme caution.

6.      However, it may be prudent to avoid excess exposure to ELF.

7.      Cell phones generate a form of non-ionizing radio frequency (RF) energy.

8.      The main source of the energy is the phone's antenna.

9.      The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), in a May 31, 2011 press release, revealed that they had "classified radiofrequency electromagnatic fields as possibly carcinogenic [cancer-causing] to humans ... based on an increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer,


 

associated with wireless phone use." The many sources of data that the IARC reviewed suggested a 40 increase in risk for glioma in heavy cell phone users, defined as an average of 30 minutes per day for 10 years.

D.     Irradiation of Food: The Debate

1.      One method of killing organisms in food is irradiation; that is, treating food with radiation.

2.      Radiation is the emission of energy by the unstable nuclei of certain atoms in the form of rays or waves.

3.      Irradiation kills organisms in the food, and it can inhibit the sprouting of vegetables and delay the ripening of fruits.

4.      The FDA allows irradiation of fresh produce, herbs, spices, pork, poultry, and red meat.

s.       Opponents to food irradiation are primarily consumers and consumer groups who think this process induces chemical changes in the nutrients that compose food, affecting the color, odor, and texture of food.

6.      They argue that these changes could result in unidentified toxins that might be harmful to humans.

III. Environmental Health in the Workplace

A.     Pesticide Poisoning

1.      Pesticides are chemicals that kill plant and animal pests.

2.      People rarely become poisoned by using pesticides in their homes or yards, but they

should be cautious.

3.      People should store pesticides in clearly marked containers.

4.      Pesticide residues on foods are not considered toxic.

5.      Most cases of pesticide poisoning involve workers who manufacture or apply pesticides.

6.      The relationship of high-level exposure to pesticides and cancer has been studied by many researchers. Determining if a causal link exists between pesticide exposure and cancer is difficult in that occupational exposure may include a variety of pesticides and cancer can have many causes.

B.     Exposure to and Inhalation of Other Toxic Chemicals

1.      A solvent is a liquid in which another substance is dissolved.

2.      Exposure to most solvents slows nerve transmission in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in slower body movement and thought processes.

3.      Some solvents are skin irritants.

4.      Processing metals such as aluminum, tin, copper, and iron can release toxic dusts and vapors.

5.      Exposure to heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, or manganese), and solvents can damage the lungs, nervous system, and other parts of the body.

6.      The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates procedures in industries to protect the health of workers.

C. Indoor Air Pollution


 

1.      Sick building syndrome refers to a variety of symptoms reported by occupants of large buildings.

2.      Workers complain of headaches; unusual fatigue; eye, nose, and throat irritation; and shortness of breath.

3.      The primary cause appears to be poor ventilation in these buildings.

4.      Office furniture and building materials may emit toxic chemicals, such as formaldehyde, that produce breathing problems and other health ailments.

5.      Air ventilation systems designed to remove toxic chemicals may improve indoor air quality.

6.      Formaldehyde is a chemical used in the manufacture of many building materials and furnishings, which then release formaldehyde into the air.

7.      Radon gas may also contaminate indoor air.

a.       Radon is present in rocks and soils in many areas of the United States.

b.      The gas leaks into homes through cracks in basement walls.

c.       People who breathe this gas are at risk of lung cancer.

IV. Environmental Health in the Outdoors

A.     Water Pollution

1.     Underground and above ground sources of water can become contaminated with pathogens or toxic chemicals from the environment.

2.      Water-borne infectious diseases are widespread problems in countries that have no water purification systems.

3.      In developed countries, sewage treatment plants treat wastewater so it does not contaminate water supplies and public drinking water is chlorinated to kill pathogens.

4.      Chemicals can contaminate surface water and groundwater (aquifers).

5.      In the United States, the Clean Water Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (and their amendments) prohibit industries from discharging toxic chemicals into surface water.

6.      The Safe Drinking Water Act authorizes the EPA to monitor the safety of drinking water and requires the use oflead-free solder in plumbing pipes.

7.      The toxic waste cleanup bill known as the "Superfund" provided money to find polluters and force them to pay to clean up their toxic waste cites.

8.      Chlorine is used to treat drinking water, and some scientists are concerned that it can form chloroform or other toxic substances.

9.      At normal levels of consumption, chlorinated water is not likely to produce cancer, miscarriages or birth defects.

10.  Tap water can be tested for pollutants; carbon filters can be used to remove carbon­containing compounds and chlorine from tap water.

11.  Bottled water is not necessarily safer than tap water.

B.     Air Pollution

1.      Sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen dioxide (N02), ozone (03), particulates, and carbon monoxide (CO) are the primary substances in air that can harm people. These substances form when fossil fuels bum.

2.      Fossil fuels include gasoline, coal, natural gas and oil.

3.      Automobiles and coal-fired power plants are the two main contributors to air


 

pollution.

4.      The use of small gas-powered machines such as leaf blowers, chain saws, and snow blowers also contribute to air pollution.

5.      Sulfur dioxide combines with water in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric acid, the main component of acid precipitation.

6.      Acid precipitation damages living and nonliving things and acidifies surface water supplies.

7.      Sulfur oxides and particulates combine with water in the air to form a haze called smog (smoke plus fog).

8.      The components of smog damage the lungs and make existing respiratory ailments worse.

9.      Particulates are small particles dispersed in air that can accumulate in the lungs.

a.       They are a factor in the development of respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. Breathing particulates can also worsen these illnesses.

10.  Sulfur dioxide in air irritates mucous lining of the eyes and lungs.

11.  The combined effects of sulfur dioxide and particulates have a greater effect than if only one of these pollutants are present.

12.  Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone are produced primarily as a result of emission from vehicles.

13.  Nitrogen dioxide and ozone irritate the eyes, lungs, and other mucous membranes.

14.  When exposed to air pollution, people with the highest risk of developing respiratory problems are the elderly, the very young, and individuals with chronic lung or heart disease.

15.  Cities polluted primarily by automobile emissions (photochemical smog) are located primarily in the southwestern United States.

16.  The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a means by which the public is informed of air quality.

17.  Since the passage of the Clean Air Act and related amendments, air quality in the United States has improved greatly.

C.     Noise Pollution

1.      Noise pollution can have a negative effect on health.

2.      Loudness is measured in decibels (dB).

3.      Sounds that are soft or quiet are 50 dB or less; sounds as loud as 80 dB are annoying and ,at 85 dB, hearing may be permanently damaged.

4.      Sounds of 120 dB or more produce pain.

5.      An estimated 40 of Americans are exposed to enough noise to produce permanent hearing loss.

6.      The damaging effects that noise has on hearing are cumulative.

7.      Tinnitus is ringing or roaring sensation in the ears that can result from partial hearing loss.

8.      Exposure to loud noises increases the heart rate, raises blood pressure, and contributes to muscle tension.

9.      Exposure to noise also increases the amount of stress hormones secreted into the bloodstream.

10.  Even moderate daytime noise levels can increase anxiety and hostile behavior in


 

some people.

11. If you are in a noisy place, request that the volume of sound be turned down.

12. Wear ear protection in noisy environments.

v.      Across the Life Span: Environmental Health

A.     Environmental health hazards are a risk for all segments of the population.

B.     Young children are most at risk for unintentional poisoning by ingestion of toxic substances because they lack understanding that these materials are harmful and they put most things in their mouths;

C.     Also extremely susceptible to carbon monoxide poisoning or air pollutants are the elderly and persons with chronic lung or heart disease, whose lung function may be impaired.

In this forum answer the following questions,
17424

 

 

As of 2014 health care expenditures in the United States are near 17% of our gross domestic product (GDP), with a major portion of Medicare funding goes towards chronic illness and care at the last 6 months of life. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has made some initial legislative changes in our health system, but not sufficient to address our growing expenditures and caring for our large aging population. In this assignment, learners will synthesize issues in aging with health policy solutions by writing a paper on one health issue for older individuals addressed in the topic and offering a policy solution.

Write a paper that addresses a health issue for older individuals. Include the following:

  1. Evaluate what the literature suggests as a resolution to your chosen issue.
  2. Discuss any attempts to incorporate the solution into public policy.
  3. Determine the barriers to implementation of the solution.
  4. Analyze the options being discussed for public and/or private funding.
  5. Propose your own recommendation.

 

 

Health Issues for the Aging

 

1
Unsatisfactory
0.00%

2
Less Than Satisfactory
74.00%

3
Satisfactory
79.00%

4
Good
87.00%

5
Excellent
100.00%

70.0 %Content

 

15.0 % Evaluation of What the Literature Suggests as a Resolution to the Selected Issue

Evaluation of what the literature suggests as a resolution to the selected issue is not present.

Evaluation of what the literature suggests as a resolution to the selected issue is present but incomplete.

Evaluation of what the literature suggests as a resolution to the selected issue is present but done at a perfunctory level.

Evaluation of what the literature suggests as a resolution to the selected issue is clearly presented. Discussion is convincing. Information presented is from scholarly though dated sources.

Evaluation of what the literature suggests as a resolution to the selected issue is clearly present. Discussion is insightful. Information presented is from current scholarly sources.

 

15.0 % Discussion of Any Attempts to Incorporate the Solution Into Public Policy

Discussion of any attempts to incorporate the solution into public policy is not present.

Discussion of any attempts to incorporate the solution into public policy is present but incomplete.

Discussion of any attempts to incorporate the solution into public policy is present but done at a perfunctory level.

Discussion of any attempts to incorporate the solution into public policy is clearly present. Discussion is convincing. Information presented is from scholarly though dated sources.

Discussion of any attempts to incorporate the solution into public policy is clearly present. Discussion is insightful. Information presented is from current scholarly sources.

 

15.0 % Determination of the Barriers to Implementation of the Solution

Determination of the barriers to implementation of the solution is not presented.

Determination of the barriers to implementation of the solution is presented but incomplete.

Determination of the barriers to implementation of the solution is presented but done at a perfunctory level.

Determination of the barriers to implementation of the solution is clearly presented. Discussion is convincing. Information presented is from mostly current scholarly, but some outdated sources are used.

Determination of the barriers to implementation of the solution is clearly presented. Discussion is insightful and detailed. Information presented is from current scholarly sources.

 

15.0 % Analysis of the Options Being Discussed for Public and/or Private Funding

Analysis of the options being discussed for public and/or private funding is not presented.

Analysis of the options being discussed for public and/or private funding is presented but incomplete.

Analysis of the options being discussed for public and/or private funding is presented but done at a perfunctory level.

Analysis of the options being discussed for public and/or private funding is clearly presented. Discussion is convincing. Information presented is from mostly current scholarly but some outdated sources are used.

Analysis of the options being discussed for public and/or private funding is clearly presented. Discussion is insightful and detailed. Information presented is from current scholarly sources.

 

10.0 % Recommended Solution

A recommended solution has not presented.

A recommended solution is presented but incomplete.

A recommended solution is presented but done at a perfunctory level.

A recommended solution is clearly presented. Sources used are mostly current and scholarly but some outdated.

A recommended solution is clearly presented. Sources used as support are from current scholarly sources.

 

20.0 %Organization and Effectiveness

 

7.0 % Thesis Development and Purpose

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear.

Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose.

Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the paper. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive. The essence of the paper is contained within the thesis. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

 

8.0 % Argument Logic and Construction

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

 

5.0 % Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are used.

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, and/or word choice are present.

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

 

10.0 %Format

 

5.0 % Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.

Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

All format elements are correct.

 

5.0 % Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment and style)

No reference page is included. No citations are used.

Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used.

Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present.

Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and citation style is usually correct.

In-text citations and a reference page are complete and correct. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.

 

100 % Total Weightage

 

 



 

 

health issue for older individuals
17366

This activity will enable you to:

  • Analyze significant economic questions according to the standards of the economics discipline including in broad subfields of economics, such as applied microeconomics, global and macroeconomics, econometrics, or finance.
  • Identify social arrangements interpreted as unjust and articulate the implications for social policy and action.

Artist impression of a collection of smoke stack releasing toxic gases in the atmosphere.

Before beginning the discussion, please read the following:

Based on these readings and videos, answer the following questions:

  • Does the 2007 IPCC report and Chairman Pachauri’s speech mean that climate change has been addressed in a meaningful way?
  • In your considered assessment, is collective action against the causes of climate change successful? If not, why not?
Environmental Policy and Globalization
17279

With Essays #1 and #2 you demonstrated your ability to identify a sustainability problem and to analyze the key components of a sustainability problem. In Poster #1 you will create a sustainable solution visionthat envisions a future state where the problem you identified and analyzed in your previous essays is actually solved. For this, you will use the visioning tool you learned in this course. Be aware that Poster #1 does NOT address the strategy to achieve the vision – this will be the topic of Essay #3! This poster will allow you to develop additional skills for solving sustainability problems and to gain hands-on experience by applying the knowledge acquired in class.

Content and Structure

Your poster must include the following seven parts, each with their own section! Describe and justify a sustainable solution vision to the analyzed problem by including the following seven sections:

1. Describe a future state where the problem has been solved, i.e., a vision. In your description, start from the mitigated negative effects and the beneficial effects, and then work backwards to the root causes. Make sure you capture all critical components of the situation (use the analytical framework from Essay #2)! Make sure your vision is tangible (real locations, people, etc.)! Begin your vision narrative with: “In 2040 …” The vision should include a narrative of what the future looks like. What is life like for people on a day-to-day basis? The vision should NOT include the strategies used to achieve this vision.

2. Justify that the vision is sustainable by applying the five sustainability principles used during the identification phase (it ought to be a sustainable solution vision, not just any vision). That means, you need to briefly explain how the solution vision ensures:

a. Viability and Integrity of Ecosystems

b. Human and Social Wellbeing

c. Equitable Opportunity for Livelihood and Economic Activities

d. Justice across Societies (Inter-regional Justice)

e. Justice from one Generation to the Next (Inter-generational Justice)

If you realize, based on your sustainability appraisal, that your vision is not sustainable (does not comply with these principles), you need to revise it!

3. Making sure the vision is coherent. A sustainability solution vision should be composed of compatible goals and be free of inconsistencies and conflicts among the values and preferences included. Incompatible or conflicting goals would provide an ambiguous direction and might lead to conflicting or, at least, non-synergistic developments in the real world. Incoherence and conflicts undermine the overall aspirations of the vision and might misguide strategy building and implementation at later stages of the problem-solving process.

4. Ensuring the vision is tangible. Sustainability solution visions need to be made tangible to become meaningful and relevant. If they remain abstract, visions do not convey what they entail and imply. If a vision is made tangible, it allows all stakeholders, irrespective of literacy, competence, and expertise, to comprehend the vision in its richness and detail. A tangible vision also provides clear guidance for designing, monitoring, and evaluating strategies and implementation processes at later stages of the problem-solving efforts.

5. Making the vision plausible. Plausible visions are somewhat grounded in reality, without overly constraining their aspirations. Plausibility is a measure that helps balance feasibility and ambition. A plausible sustainability vision utilizes the productive tension between what is feasible and what is sustainable. Plausible visions are grounded in reality, which means that they entail one or more of the following three types of elements: a) Elements that have been realized in the past under similar circumstances (maybe even at the same location), but do not any longer exist; b) Elements that have been realized elsewhere in the world and still exist; c) Elements that have been demonstrated realizable (concept proof), often through a pilot project or an extended peer-review process.

6. Ensuring the vision is motivational. Unlike general future scenarios, which are primarily designed to inform people about uncertainty, visions are supposed to inspire and motivate people to contribute towards the envisioned change. Motivational visions create buy-in and acceptance of the proposed changes, spark interest in collectively developing the vision further, and incentivize active participation in the strategy-building and implementation process.

7. Balancing complexity and capacity. The complexity of societal systems including actions, technologies, and infrastructures might be too complex for us to handle, leading to the sustainability challenges we experience. Sustainability solution visions ought to align complexity and capacity. Starting from the problematic situation, sustainability solution visions could envision systems that are (much) simpler than the problematic ones currently in place. This pertains to urban systems, technologies, companies, and many other complex societal systems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electronic Waste in Beijing

Institution Affiliation

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electronic Waste in Beijing

Introduction

Beijing is China’s most iconic city that boasts of being the country’s capital and business centre. Technology has seen the growth of the city since colonization to see its great size we see today. However, the growth of the city has created a sustainability problem in the village of Dong Xiao Kou. Dong Xiao Kou village is located in the northwest direction of the outskirt of Beijing Town and is home to at least 500,000 poor immigrants who work in the city. This village has become Beijing’s corner of rubbish where the town dumps all the types of waste from metal to electronics and plastic. The dumpsites in the area have become the source of livelihood for most of the immigrant's families living in the town who mainly process electronic waste to acquire valuable parts for (Tong, 2017). However, due to the type of recycling and processing done in the site that is primarily small-scale, unprotected and unregulated, the processing of e-waste in Dong Xia Kou in Beijing has become a sustainability problem that worries both private and public entities.

Adverse Effects and Affected Stakeholders

The effects of e-waste disposal in Dong Xia Kou causes large-scale consequences on not only the people of the village but also those living in its vicinity. The most important effects of the involve the community and people living in the village where the improper dismantling of electronics in the dumpsites causes a lot of pollution of the air, water and soil in the area and injuries to people working therein. The results of these is an increase in diseases among humans and reduced quality of water and food grown. The effects of high concentration of heavy metals such as gold, cadmium, and lead and other water toxicants have led to a reduction of fish in the sea and river waters of Beijing (Abdulrahman, Gunasekaran & Subramanian, 2014). It has also caused a decline in productivity of rice field in the area which may create food security problems in future.

While these effects have grown over time, it has become very hard to stop the illegal trade due to dispersed effects and the fact that the e-waste dumpsites are a source of livelihood for families. While the people working in e-waste dumpsites are aware of the dangers of doing so, they are often reluctant of leaving the trade due to reliance on the practice for living. The decision by the city to stop small-scale e-waste dismantling has been met with protest as people fear losing jobs. According to Tong (2017) at least 2000 immigrants come to Dong Xia Kou every year to look for jobs. Consequently, there is a continuous increase in dependence on the e-waste dumpsites by the community. This means that if action is not taken immediately, future closure of the Dong Xia Kou dumpsite will have greater social challenges that it can have at present.

Causing Activities, actors and technology

The primary cause of the current situation in Dong Xia Kou is capitalist business people in China who have opted for cheap methods of e-waste processing. While there exist improved technology to dismantle electronic waste that does not pose a health risk to humans or create excessive wastage, large companies take advantage of cheap labour provided by immigrant workers in Beijing to increase their revenues through small-scale processing by use of hands. As a result of the cheap cost of disposal, developed countries export their e-waste to China which increases the danger and poison the environment in the country.

The government and some of its agencies are also to blame for the increased waste disposal in Dong Xia Kou. Despite there being rules against trade with e-waste, China continues to import more than 70% of e-waste in the world (Wang et al., 2015). This trade that is unlawful and done through corrupt measures degrades the environment in Beijing. The underlying factor behind the increased degradation of the Beijing environment is the growth of technology industry which is the primary source of electronic waste. With increase and advances in technology involving the creation of computers, fridges, televisions, phones and other electronic accessories by people from all across the globe, there is an addition in the amount of e-waste in Beijing.

Benefiting Stakeholders

The chief beneficiaries of the dumping of electronic waste in Dong Xia Kou are immigrants and owners of small-scale processing industries, and electronic consumers from all parts of the world. Immigrants workers benefit from the Dong Xia Kou dumpsite as they get a source of livelihood. These are mainly poor people who lack other methods of earning a living in the city. However, these poor immigrants end up being used by rich tycoons who pay them peanuts to process the waste at the expense of their health (Wang et al., 2015). The rich tycoons are the main beneficiaries of poor e-waste processing. They increase their revenues by getting cheap labour in the village without taking responsibility for their activities on the environment.

Electronic consumers from all parts of the world are also beneficiaries of the cheap e-waste disposal in Dong Xia Kou. It is estimated that dismantling of e-waste in the US would cost five times the cost it does in China. Consequently, consumers pay less for their electronic waste to be blasted in China than in the US. In Beijing, 90% of residents do not pay for the processing of waste dumped (Abdulrahman, 2014). Large electronic manufacturers also benefit from the cheap e-waste processing as they pay less to get their waste dismantled. These people are the chief reason the Dong Xia Kou exist.

Underlying Motives, needs, preferences, and values

Economic interest and the need to make money is the chief motive behind the degradation of the Dong Xia Kou environment. Most of the people contributing to the increase in the illegal dumping of e-waste in Dong Xia Kou are interested in creating revenues at the expense of the environment and human life. Poor immigrants, with the need for money to take them through life, come to dumpsite to earn a living. They are motivated by basic needs where they have to live. Chinese capitalists who mainly live away from the dumpsites are motivated by greed for money and to increase the amount of revenue they get from improper processing. Motivated by the desire to make more money, they avoid expensive methods of dismantling waste.

China is an extremely cheap place for the world to dump e-waste due to the cheap labour for dismantling it. Developed nations bring their e-waste in the country to cut on the cost of processing it in their homes. There are also greedy government officials in China who despite the law not to allow business tycoons to bring import (Steuer, 2017). Finally, the Chinese government is also pressed by the need to create jobs for the poor. Immediate closure of the dumpsite is likely to bring social challenges such as unemployment, crime, and even reduce revenues for the government if taxes and consumption went down. This makes the government give a blind eye to the poor processing of the waste in Beijing.

Rules, Norms and laws

Rules include the distribution of fairness and justice among members of the society. They include factors like equitable opportunities, intergenerational and regional justice. In terms of rules, they may be formal or informal. Formal rules are what the society considers to be right or wrong and provide consequences for wrongdoing through a governance structure. Formal rules are what constitutes the law. On the other hand, while informal rules are created by the society, there exist no governance structure for punishing or rewarding for their obedience or disobedience. Informal rules are norms and breaking them may cause the society to look down upon an individual without extreme consequences.

The primary rules that play part n the Beijing sustainability problem is the Basel convention the Beijing ratified that outlaws are trading in e-waste. The business community in China has systematically broken this law. Beijing had also required its residents to pay for e-waste processing, but the legislation found poor reception. One informal rule that plays a part in the Beijing waste challenge in the value of economic development over environmental protection. The residents of Dong Xia Kou have decided to ignore the importance of the environment while pursuing economic good (Wang et al., 2015). It is also a norm for the society to put health before economic development. Natural law requires that the overall benefits of an action of an event overcome the harms created. This is not the case in Beijing as we see people create money at the expense of both their health and that of others. The Dong Xia Kou is unethical and will lead to more challenges that are benefits.

Capacity, Skills and Competence

Trade in e-waste started in Dong Xia Kou two decades ago after small-scale electronic dismantling was found economical. While informal waste processing does not recover all the valuable resources in electronics, it is cheap and increases the effectiveness and ease of getting resources from the waste. Use of hand-made items such as harmers to get valuable components of electronics makes it simple for the manufacturers to easily get such components as gold from electronics without using a lot of money. The high rate of e-waste generation in China and other parts of the world also play a part in creating an opportunity for getting a lot of useful electronic parts as possible (Song & Li, 2014). Instead of using a lot of resources to get valuable pieces of electronics such as gold from their hidden parts, people can just get the readily available metals from the equipment. The bulk allows for the creation of large-scale without doing a lot of work or using a lot of resources.

There is also the presence of a market for the resources recovered from the e-waste in the Chinese economy. China is home to many electronics companies that buy metals such as gold, lead and cadmium for use in manufacturing. There is, therefore, a ready market for small amounts of these metals in the door fronts of the producers. There are no middlemen who would otherwise reduce the cost of selling the scrap. This motivates the small-scale e-waste processor to make an effort towards providing the resources. Despite there being laws against e-waste trade there are stills a lot of the material coming from developed nations (Song & Li, 2014). Poor capacity by the Chinese government to regulate the importation of the waste creates an opportunity for people in business to utilize it to their advantage. There is also no competition from formal e-waste processors for illegally imported e-waste which makes the informal sector to boom.

Resources

The most important resources that allowed the benefiting stakeholders to take action include the availability of cheap labour, money, market and lack of regulations. When the informal scrap processing started in Dong Xia Kou, there were no regulations to dictate the nature of processing or importing of e-waste. This allowed rich economists to create many small-scale blasters in the village and make money from the unregulated business. The ease of accessing market also made it easy for the rich businesspeople to create money by selling items that they had made (Orlins & Guan, 2016). The access to financial resources allowed the business people to control the political powers to their will. The rich tycoons bribe corrupt government officials to allow the importation of illegal e-waste in the country. They can bribe and get large quantities of e-waste from developing countries to make money in China.

Low cost of labour in China is also an important resource that contributes to the degradation of the Dong Xia Kou village of Beijing. China’s labour cost is among the lowest in the world which opens up the country for manufacturing and other industries. This makes it easy to make money out of small-scale manufacturing and processing activities (Orlins & Guan, 2016). Finally, transportation infrastructure is also a resource that contributes to the Dong Xia Kou e-waste dumping challenge. The proximity to the sea makes the village easy to obtain imported e-waste. Also, there are good roads from Beijing city that ease transportation of waste to the village.

External Factors

The major external factor that affects the problem and ability t change the situation in the Beijing Dong Xia Kou village involves economic challenges. While China’s economy has grown at a rate of between 8 and 10 percent in the past two decades, this rapid rise is not without challenges (Song & Li, 2014). The countries development model has led to increase in social problems that are hard to solve and may lead to severe crises in future. The government has taken up a model that promotes investment which attracts a lot of foreigners. However, wealth accumulation does not match this fast growth of the economy in the country. Consequently, there are a vast number of resources that are not utilized but the community (Orlins & Guan, 2016). For example, while there are many modern and better-equipped industries for processing e-waste, they are not used due to the expenses involved. A majority of people in Chinese languish in poverty while a few enjoy the great number of resources in the country. These people offer cheap labour at the expense of their health in informal industries. Closing the informal sector will hence live the vast majority of the members of the public unemployed.

The second challenge is the increased gap between the rich and poor in the country. The development model in China is so different from the political structure. While China is a politically socialist country, the economic model promotes capitalist ideas that advocate for the growth of personal wealth (Steuer, 2017). Consequently, the rich, governed by political notion continue to make more wealth while the poor, controlled by socialist law, continue to grow. This increases the gap between the deprived and the rich where the former are exploited by the later. The poor will work and live under extremes of conditions like the Dong Xia Kou village to make money for the rich. Having the control of the economy, the rich will make decisions on how to make money and what the economy produces. The people in the village are slaves to the rich people living beautiful villas of Beijing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Abdulrahman, M. D., Gunasekaran, A., & Subramanian, N. (2014). Critical barriers in implementing reverse logistics in the Chinese manufacturing sectors. International Journal of Production Economics147, 460-471.

Orlins, S., & Guan, D. (2016). China's toxic informal e-waste recycling: local approaches to a global environmental problem. Journal of Cleaner Production114, 71-80.

Song, Q., & Li, J. (2014). A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China. Environment international68, 82-93.

Steuer, B. (2017). Is China’s regulatory system on urban household waste collection effective? An evidence-based analysis on the evolution of formal rules and contravening informal practices. Journal of Chinese Governance2(4), 411-436.

Tong, X. (2017). From “Waste Village” to “Urban Circular Economic System”: The Changing Landscape of Waste in Beijing. In Carbon Capitalism and Communication (pp. 71-82). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Wang, J., Liu, L., Wang, J., Pan, B., Fu, X., Zhang, G., ... & Lin, K. (2015). Distribution of metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sediments, soils and plants from an informal e-waste dismantling site, South China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research22(2), 1020-1033.

 

 

Root Causes                                                       Immediate Causes                                          Effects

 

                           
  Rounded Rectangle: External Factors
-	Poor Economic Model
-	High rate of Unemployment
-	Large Gap between the poor and the rich
-	The rich control China’s Economy
    Rounded Rectangle: Benefits
-	Employment for immigrant workers
-	Income for businesspeople
-	Cheap disposal of e-waste
   

-Import e-waste from developed countries

-Corrupt government officials to allow e-waste dumping in Beijing

-Use unsafe methods to get resources from e-waste

-Release toxic waste in rivers, air and soil

 

 
   
 
     
 
 
  Rounded Rectangle: Motives needs, preferences and values
-	 Economic gain
-	Availability of cheap labor
-	Maximizing profits
-	Pressure to create jobs
-
 
   
 
 
 
     
 
  Rounded Rectangle: Capacities Skills and competence
-	Use of hand-held tools 
-	Ease of e-waste acquisition
-	Bulk quantities
-	Market access
-	Poor government regulation
   
 
 
    Rounded Rectangle: Resources
-	Cheap Labor
-	Strong Financial Muscles
-	Ready Market for products
     
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

With Essays #1 and #2 you demonstrated your ability to identify
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This week you will write a paper on the potential public health impacts of climate change on different parts of the world. Many experts predict that climate change will impact different parts of the world in different ways. Some areas of the world may see increased periods of drought while others may experience increased periods of flooding (IPCC, 2007).

In addition, developing countries will most likely be impacted more severely than developed countries (United Nations Development Program [UNDP], n.d.). 

Using the Argosy University online library resources and reliable Internet resources, prepare a paper on three of the most important examples of how climate change will impact public health. Be sure to address the following:

  • Examine how the outcomes from climate change on public health will differ between developed and developing countries.
  • Describe what the future will be like for these public health issues as climate change becomes more severe.
  • Explain the mitigation and response plans in place to ameliorate the effects of these changes.
  • Assess the feasibility of these plans. If you could design a plan to address this issue, would it differ from current plans? If so, how?

Be sure to support your positions with scholarly references—including a reference list—and appropriate examples.

Write a 2–3-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M4_A2.doc.

By the due date assigned, deliver your assignment to the Submissions Area.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). IPCC fourth assessment report: Climate change 2007 (AR4). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (n.d.). Environment and energy: Climate change and CDM. Retrieved from
http://www.undp.org/energy/climate.htm

Assignment 2: Climate Change Patterns Around the World
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You can choose one of these sources.

https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/promoting-world-environment-day-through-bottle-island-animation

 

https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/exploring-alternative-materials-reduce-plastic-pollution

 

https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/number-mountain-gorillas-rise-virunga-massif

 

Vincent Smith

ES 200, Entry 4 2 July 2016

Environment in the News

To be completely honest, I did not know much about the issue of Air Pollution prior to reading chapter 8 of this text. I never considered all the sources of air pollutions and it's effect on us. The book shows a pie chart outlining the sources of primary air pollutants listing transportation at 57, fuel combustion (electric power plants) at 21 , industrial processes at 12, and miscellaneous pollutants at 10. So what does this all mean? What effects do our cars and trucks and planes really have on us? I'm aware there must be some effect on our environment, but it has never personally impacted me (that I'm aware of) so my ignorance has kept me in the dark. According to the text, air pollution actually injured our organisms, reduces visibility, and attacks and corrodes materials such as plastics and metals. The list of things it effects is momentous, everything from worsening existing medical conditions, to reducing the productivity of crop plants, and effects ozone depletion (Berg, page 201). This is incredibly dangerous even more so because we can't actually physically see the damage that is being done. So while I wasn't completely aware of it's effect on me personally, this whole time my encounters with everything from smog to carbon monoxide could have been surprising my immune system or reducing my bloods ability to transport oxygen (Berg, page 203). It's effects are incredibly significant, and if we aren't actively working to combat it's effects, the results can be detrimental.

Last September a series came out in the National Geographic profiling the struggles of three different neighborhoods in each city that Pope Francis visited. These included Washington


 

DC, New York City, and Philadelphia. This was a great tool to see the realities of air pollution illustrated in real life, present day scenarios. This also shined a light on the reality that the poorest people are always the most effected by worst environmental turmoil. The pope's entreaties about the link between poverty and the environment are especially pertinent in East Harlem. A vast number of families being effected by air pollution due to mold, cockroaches, and other poor housing conditions all of which are directly impacting their health (Konkel). This also has a correlation to race. East Harlem's population is over half Hispanic or Latino, and approximately one third black. The director if Columbia University's Center for Children's Environmental Health said that "[t]he fumes-linked to asthma attacks but also to cancer, reduced IQs, child behavioral problems, and heart attacks-waft across the city" (Konkel). In fact, 73 our of every thousand kids under the age of fifteen are treated by emergency room doctor for asthma attacks, which is more than two times the city's rate. In addition, "chronic stressors of poverty may fundamentally alter the way the body reacts to everyday pollutants" (Konkel). So those who are more susceptible to being in contact with air pollutants are also less susceptible to be able to fight off its negative effects. The pope throughout his trip does a good job describing the link between good housing and good health. The conclusion of this paper proposes that everyone must come together, not just who are being personally effected, but those who are in positions of privilege, to advocate for better living conditions for all New Yorkers. Of course, this message isn't specific to New York but world wide. What this assignment has left me is not just to get better housing for minorities in New York, but also to work on external factors that are effecting our air pollution such as conserving energy (turning off lights and unplugging electric appliances when they're not in us), using other forms of transportation such as walking or biking, reporting smoking heckles, buying environmental products, etc.


 

References

Berg, Linda R.; Hassenzahl, David M.; Hager, Mary Catherine (2013). Visualizing Environmental Science, 4th Edition. Wiley. Kindle Edition.

Konkel, Lindsey. "Kids Struggle to Breathe in This Neighborhood on Popef'H'our." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 24 Sept. 2015. Web.


 

Environment in the News Assignment Guide

You will complete one Environment in the News log activity per week, starting Week 2, for each of the 10 weeks of the quarter. Each log entry must describe an environmental event that has happened since April 1, 2018, is tied in some way to human effects on the environment, and is related to the course topics covered in the textbook for that week. A good log entry describes the event, explains why the event caught the student's interest, relates the event to specific course content in the textbook, and is based on a strong reference source. The event can be something that humans did to the environment or something that the environment did to humans (as long as humans had a role in creating the event); it can also be release of new data or studies on topics related to the impact of humans on the environment. Since environmental science is interdisciplinary, log entries can also include social science topics related to human impact on the environment. A sample log entry and sample data sources are provided on the course Moodie site. Log entries should be approximately two double-spaced pages in length.

The log entry should provide complete reference information, or a live link, to a strong, science­based reference source. A log entry for a given week must be completed any time between midnight on the Sunday of the week in which it is due, and 11:55 pm on the Saturday of the same week. Each weekly entry is worth 5 points. Entries without adequate reference sources will be penalized 1 point. Entries not containing each of the three content areas described above will be penalized one point per missing content area, as will entries whose dates do not meet the cutoff date given above or that do not relate to the course. After the due date and time, the upload site disappears and log entries can't be uploaded. Late entries to the Environmental Events log are not accepted, except in cases of serious, documented, and independently verifiable circumstances, with 24-hour advance notice, that preclude a student from Internet access for an entire week.

Environment in the News Log. Example entries and sources are attached.
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Question 1.  

Select at least two alternative energies and one nonrenewable energy.

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Alternative Energies and Tradeoffs Matrix.

Compare the tradeoffs for the three types of energy.

Include specifics about the advantages and disadvantages of each energy type. Total word count should be 350 to 525 words. (use attachement  labelled 1)

 

 

 

 

 

Question 2.Resources: LEED™ Presentation; Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet

Read the LEED™ Microsoft® PowerPoint® Presentation to gain an understanding of the standard for green architecture.

Select the design of a home that uses standard architectural design or nonrenewable, inefficient energy guidelines.

Complete the Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet. Use the Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet to complete the following:

  • Determine the most efficient alternative energy design that would reduce the energy output through built-in calculation.
  • Compare the energy usage in the original to the new design of the chosen home.

Redesign your chosen building to achieve a certified, silver, or gold level of LEED™certification.

Prepare a 10- to 12-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation with speaker notes and include the following:

  • Outline your idea for an alternative energy design that includes LEED™ architecture.
  • Determine the most energy-efficient design or alternative energy for the home or building you have chosen.
  • Describe how you might integrate sustainable energy sources and technologies into the design.
  • Report the energy savings of the new design.
  • Compare actions you might take in daily activities at home, when commuting, and to work to reduce the energy you consume.

Note: The Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet should automatically calculate the electricity used in a typical house once you insert the number of hours. In addition, include the power usage of standard appliances such as a water heater, refrigerator, lighting, computer, television, dishwasher, and so on

University of Phoenix Material

 

Alternative Energies and Tradeoffs Matrix

 

Complete the following matrix by selecting at least two alternative energies and one nonrenewable energy.

 

Energy Type

Advantages

Disadvantages

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

BS/EVS Rubrix (New Classroom) Signature Assignment Analytic Rubric FY16

Course 10: SUS/300

Course Title: Environmental Sustainability

Signature Assignment Title: (Week 5) Green LEEO ™ Architecture Total number of Points: 20

Signature Assignment Description/Directions:

Green LEEO ™ Architecture

Resources: LEED'M Presentation; Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet

Read the LEED'M Microsoft- PowerPoint® Presentation provided on the student website to gain an understanding of the standard for green architecture.

Select the design of a home that uses standard architectural design or nonrenewable, inefficient energy guidelines.

Complete the Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet located on the student website. Use the Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet to complete the following:

·         Determine the most efficient alternative energy design that would reduce the energy output through built-in calculation.

·         Compare the energy usage in the original to the new design of the chosen home.

Redesign your chosen building to achieve a certified, silver, or gold level of LEED'M certification. Prepare a 10- to 12-slide Microsoft= Power+oint-presentation and include the following:

·         Outline your idea for an alternative energy design that includes LEED'M architecture.

·         Determine the most energy-efficient design or alternative energy for the home or building you have chosen.

·         Describe how you might integrate sustainable energy sources and technologies into the design.

·         Report the energy savings of the new design.

·         Compare actions you might take in daily activities at home, when commuting, and to work to reduce the energy you consume.

Note. The Microsoft= Excel- spreadsheet should automatically calculate the electricity used in a typical house once you insert the number of hours. In addition, include the power usage of standard appliances such as a water heater, refrigerator, lighting, computer, television, dishwasher, and so on.

Present your Green LEED'M Architecture presentation.

·         For Local Campus students, these are 10- to 15-minute oral presentations accompanied by Microsoft= PowerPoint® presentations.

·         For Online and Directed Study students, these are Microsoft= PowerPoint® presentations with notes.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Format your evaluation consistent with APA guidelines.

1


 

PSLO:

GE-SLO:

Dimensions or

Does Not Meet

Approaches Expectations

Meets Expectations

Exceeds Expectations

 

 

Assignment

Expectations

 

 

 

 

ULG:

Criteria

 

(2.00)

(3.00)

(4.00)

 

 

 

(1.00)

 

 

 

 

 

Weight:

 

 

 

 

BSIEVS

GE:3

Apply Scientific

Does not demonstrate

Demonstrates limited

Demonstrates proficient

 

SLO#1.5.2

 

Measurements

ability apply scientific

 

Explain key

ULG:4

and Calculations

ability to apply

measurements and

ability to apply scientific

Demonstrates a highly skilled

concepts and

 

 

scientific

calculations to assess

measurements and

ability to apply scientific

theories in the

 

Weight:15

measurements or

environmental issues and

calculations, including

measurements and calculations

physical and life

 

 

calculations to assess

major components are

minor components to

to assess environmental issues in

 

 

environmental issues in

precisely and accurately

a highly academic manner with

sciences.

 

 

any meaningful

missing and assessment

assess environmental

extreme precision and accuracy.

 

 

 

manner.

may lack precision or

issues.

 

 

 

 

 

accuracy.

 

 

BSIEVS

GE:l

Analyze Energy

Does not demonstrates

Demonstrates limited

Demonstrates proficient

Demonstrates distinguished

SLO#2.6.2

 

Usage and

ability to analyze and

ability to analyze and

ability to analyze and

Analyze

ULG: 1

Conservation

address issues related

address some issues

address most issues related

ability to analyze and address

environmental

 

Issues

to energy use and

related to energy use and

to energy use and

complex issues related to energy

issues using the

 

 

conservation or relate

conservation and relate

conservation and relate

use and conservation and relate

fundamentals of

 

Weight:15

them to environmental

them to environmental

them to environmental

them effectively to

the physical and

 

 

 

 

 

environmental concerns.

 

 

concerns.

concerns.

concerns.

 

life sciences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BSIEVS

GE:5

Compare and

Does not demonstrate

Demonstrates limited

Demonstrates proficient

Demonstrates advanced skill to

SLO#3.2.0

 

Contrast

ability to compare and

Utilize scientific

ULG: 2

solutions to an

ability to compare and

contrast solutions to an

ability in accurately

accurately compare and contrast

reasoning to

 

environmental

contrast proposed

environmental problem

comparing and contrasting

proposed solutions to an

critically

 

problem

solutions to an

and the assessment has

proposed solutions for

environmental problem in a

analyze

 

 

environmental

major inaccuracies or

environmental problems in

comprehensive and detailed

environmental

 

Weight: 15

problem.

lacks major details.

a detailed manner.

manner.

issues

 

 

 

 

 

 

BSIEVS

GE:l

Apply Laboratory

Does not demonstrates

Demonstrates limited

Demonstrates proficient

Demonstrates distinguished

SLO#4.1.1

 

Experimental

ability to apply

ability to efficiently apply

ability to efficiently apply

Apply basic

ULG: 2

Methods and

experimental,

experimental, laboratory

experimental, laboratory

ability to efficiently apply

experimental, laboratory

research

 

Equipment

laboratory methods

methods and use lab

methods and use lab

methods and use lab equipment

methods in

 

 

and use lab equipment

equipment to test

equipment to test

science

 

Weight: 15

to test hypothesis.

hypothesis

hypothesis.

to test hypothesis.

2


 

BSIEVS

GE:1

Generate

Does not demonstrate

Demonstrates limited

Demonstrates proficient

Demonstrates distinguished

SLO#4.1.2

 

Scientific Writing

ability to generate

ability to document

ability to document

ability to meticulously document

Apply basic

ULG: 2

From Lab

written results of a

procedures used and

procedures used and

procedures used and generate

research

 

Experiments

laboratory experiment

generate accurate and

generate accurate and

accurate and detailed written

methods in

 

 

in a comprehensible

detailed written results of

detailed written results of a

results of a laboratory

science

 

Weight:15

manner.

a laboratory experiment.

laboratory experiment.

experiment.

BSIEVS

GE:2

Generate

 

Demonstrates limited

 

 

SLO#7.1.0

 

Unbiased

Does not demonstrate

ability to generate

Demonstrates proficient

Student provides unbiased

Generate

ULG:3

Explanations

ability to generate

unbiased explanations of

effective

 

 

explanations of

environmental issues, and

ability to generate unbiased

explanations of environmental

communications

 

Weight:15

environmental issues in

major components are

and effective explanations

issues in a comprehensive and

in

 

 

an unbiased manner.

missing or presented with

of environmental issues.

exemplary manner.

environmental

 

 

 

bias.

 

 

sciences

 

 

 

 

 

 

BSIEVS

GE 2.1

Conventions of

Student demonstrates

Student demonstrates

Student demonstrates strong

Student demonstrates

SLO#7.3.0

 

Language

little control of standard

limited control of standard

control of standard writing

exceptionally strong control of

Effective

GE 2.2

 

writing conventions.

writing conventions (e.g.,

conventions (e.g.,

standard writing conventions (e.g.,

Communications

 

 

(e.g., punctuation,

punctuation, spelling,

punctuation, spelling,

punctuation, spelling,

in Environmental

ULG 3

Weight: 5

spelling, capitalization,

capitalization, paragraph

capitalization, paragraph

capitalization, paragraph breaks,

Sciences through

 

 

paragraph breaks,

breaks, grammar and

breaks, grammar and usage)

grammar and usage) and uses them

Mastery of

 

 

grammar and usage).

usage). Errors begin to

and uses them effectively to

effectively to enhance

Written English

 

 

Frequent, significant

impede readability.

enhance communication.

communication.

 

 

 

errors impede

 

Errors are so few and so

 

 

 

 

readability.

 

minor that they do not

 

 

 

 

 

 

impede readability.

 

BSIEVS

GE: 2.1

UseofAPA

Errors in style (e.g.

Errors in style (e.g. APA)

Errors in style (e.g. APA) are

There are no errors in style (e.g.

SLO#7.4.0

 

Format/Style

APA) detract

detract from the content of

rare and do not detract from

APA).

Effective

ULG: 3

 

substantially from the

the paper.

the content of the paper.

 

Communications

 

Weight: 5

content of the paper.

 

 

 

in Environmental

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sciences through

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery of

 

 

 

 

 

 

Written English

 

 

 

 

 

 

3


 

o

An Introduction to the

and the

o

March 2004


 

o

 

The nation Os foremost coalition of ~eaders from across tfrle buUdhilg industliY working to promote buildings that are envlronmentaUy responsible, profitable, and healthy places to live and work.

The organization~s purpose is to: ott b ildi 9 i dust s to

    Dead mar t tr S 0             tio

    o Ed t 0                     sand p


 

·           National nonprofit organization based in

Washington, DC

·           Diverse membership of organizations

·           Consensus-driven

·           Committee-based product deve~opment

·          Developer and administrator of the LEEDTM Green BuUding Rating System


 

D

D

Design and construction practices that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impact of buUdings on the environment and occupants in five broad areas:

• u tai abl site pl            i

• Sa gua di g ate a date                          y

• erg effi i                  d

• 0                  tio 0 mat lals and               ou s

• I door en i 0              t I quaUt


 

*

r 65~20/0 of total U~S~ e~ectricity consumption 1 r :> 360/0 of total U~S~ primary energy use 2

r 300/0 of total U~S~ greenhouse gas emissions 3 r 136 mUUon tons of construction and demoUtion

waste in the U~S~ (approx. 2~8 ~bs/person/day) 4

r 120/0 of potsbls water in the U~S~ 5

r 400/0 (3 bUUon tons annuaUy) of raw materials use g~obaUy 6

* Commercial and residential


 

Environmental benefits

r Reduce t e impacts of natural resource consumption

Economic benefits

r Improve the bottom line

Health and safety benefits

r Enhance occupant comfort and health

Community benefits

inimize strain on local infrastructures and improve quality of life


 

Competitive first costs

·   Integrated design allows high benefit at low cost by achieving synergies between disciplines and between technologies

Reduce operating costs

· Lower utility costs significantly

Optimize Ufe-cyc~e economic performance


 

Improve occupant performance

r Estimated $29 ursa billion in national p oductivity losses per year 1

o        Student performance is bette in daylit sc ools. 2~ 3

Reduce absenteeism and turnover

o      P oviding a healthy wo kplace i p oves e ployee satisfaction

Increase retan sales with daylighting

o Studies have shown ~40 improve ent 4


 

·         FacUitate positive results for the environment, occupant hea~th and financial retu rn

·         Define DgreenD by providing a standard for measurement

·         Prevent I reenwashing (false or exaggerated claims)

·         Promote whole-building~ integrated design processes


 

·          Use as a design guideline

·         Recognize ~eaders

·         Stimulate green competition

·      EstabUsh market value with recognizable nanonal 0 brand 0

·         Raise consumer awareness

·         Transform the marketplace!


 

D 11 Certified Projects* 1011 Registered Projects*

134 M gsf*

49 States

10 Countries*

*As of 11.20.03


 

o

• Registered Projects by Building Type*

Laboratory 4

Multi-Unit Residential 3

Industrial (ma nufa cturi ng , warehouse, pub. works) 4

Recreation 2

Multi-Use 21  

Commercial Office 18

Higher Education g

*As of 11.20.03

Interpretive Center (museum, visitor center, zoo)

5

K-12 Education 6


 

o

Registered Projects by Owner Type*

Federal Government 100/0

State Government 120/0

*: As of 11.20.03

Other 60/0

Individual 10/0

o

Nonprofit Corporation 180/0

Profit Corporation 290/0

Local Government 240/0


 

LEED

A leading~edge system for designing, constructing, operating and certifying the world's greenest buildings~

USGBC's agship ratin s s em is LE D or Ne Construction and ajor R novations (L ED-NC)


 

LEED-NC

NEW CONSTRUCTION & MAJOR RENOVATION version 2.1

LEED-EB

 

LEED-CS

for

-r-

for

EXISTING BUILDINGS

 

CORE & SHELL

PILOT

 

PILOT

 

 

 

LEED-CI

 

LEED-H

for

-"-

for

COMMERCIAL INTERIORS

 

HOMES

PILOT

 

PENDING


 

o

·         Green buUding rating system, currently for commercial and institutiona~ new construction and major renovation,

·          Existing, proven technologies

 

·         Eva~uates and recognizes performance in accepted green design categories

 

·         LEED product development inc~udes existing buUdings, interiors, mu~tip~e buildings, core <& shaU, and homes


 

o

·         Whole-building approach encourages and guides a collaborative, integrated design

and construction process

 

·        Optimizes environmental and economic factors

·          Fou r ~eve~s of certification

r LEED Certified r Silver Level

r Gold Level

r Platinum Level

26 - 32 points 33 - 38 points 39 - 51 points

52+ points (69 possible)


 

Indoor Envi ronmental

o

Materials & Resources 20

Energy & Atmosphere 27

Sustainable Sites 22

Water Efficiency 8

Five LEED credit categories


 

Deve~op appropriate sites

Reuse existing bui~dings and/or sites Protect natural and agricultural areas Reduce need for automobi~e use Protect and/or restore sites


 

o

Credit

Point(s)

·    Erosion & Sediment Control

·    Site Selection

·    Urban Redevelopment

·    Brownfield Redevelopment

·    Alternative Transportation

·    Reduced Site Disturbance

·    Stormwater Management

 

·                  landscape & Exterior Design to Reduce Heat Islands

light Pollution Reduction

Required 1

1

1

1-4 1-2 1-2 1-2

1

14 Total


 

Reduce the quantity of water required for buUding operations