Student: Stanley

Pursuasive Presentation the topic is gun control you must find the resource on the new york times you must use the resources I gave you finish the outline Persuasive Outline Template Name:_________________________________ Instructions: Fill in the blanks with your information and sentences You should delete anything in parentheses in the text of the speech because those are just directions to you and REMOVE the parentheses. Those are just there so that you know what to write in place of them. Replace them with your words, in complete sentences. The only thing that should remain is the format: I. A., B., C., 1., 2., etc. and the indentations. Fill in the line for the Transition statement. It does not need to have a letter or number in front of it. You can have more main points than shown here, you can also have more or less supporting details or sub-supporting details than shown here. Remember to HIGHLIGHT or BOLD your internal references/verbal citations in the body. Fill in this Information for the instructor: Opinion: will not increase public safety or will increase public safety (you choose) *Topic: Gun control *General Purpose: to persuade *Specific Purpose: *Do NOT say this information ^ out loud. Start your speech at your Attention getter. (DELETE THESE WORDS AND Type the Title of Your Speech Here) Introduction I. Attention Getter: II. Proposition: III. Credibility: IV. Preview your main points: Transition statement: Body I. (Write your first main point here) A. (Write your first Supporting Detail to first main point here) 1. (Write any Sub-supporting detail here, you fill in or eliminate as you need) 2. (Write any Sub-supporting detail here, you fill in or eliminate as you need) B. (Write your second Supporting Detail to first main point here) 1. (Write any Sub-supporting detail here, you fill in or eliminate as you need) 2. (Write any Sub-supporting detail here, you fill in or eliminate as you need) Transition statement: II. (Write your second main point here) A. (Write your first Supporting Detail to second main point here—continue the format as shown above) 1. 2. B. 1. 2. Transition statement: III. (Write your third main point here) A. (Write your first Supporting Detail to third main point here—continue the format as shown above) 1. 2. B. 1. 2. Transition statement: Conclusion I. Summary of main points: II. Call to Action: III. Memorable closing remark: Works Cited Use the CiteNow! Citation, or other Citation generator for correct formatting of your works cited entries. Minimum 3 sources, can use more. Gun control Website: As mass shootings continued to rock the nation, gun control groups and leading Democrats stepped up their push for stricter gun control laws. A national poll in May found that more than 60 percent of registered voters supported stiffer measures, including more-extensive background checks and a ban on the sale of assault weapons. The 2018 midterm elections marked the first national election in which gun control groups outspent the National Rifle Association (NRA), which has been beset by internal feuds. But gun-rights groups remain formidable, and most congressional Republicans oppose tougher gun laws, saying background checks and other measures are ineffective. Amid the debate, the federal government released figures showing that firearms were involved in nearly 40,000 deaths — nearly two-thirds of them suicides — in 2017, the most in decades. Mass shootings less than 24 hours apart in El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio, in early August have led to increased calls for stronger gun control measures, and some Republican lawmakers have begun to express support for limited changes. President Trump, who initially seemed to support stricter measures such as universal background checks, has given mixed signals on his intent. Immediately after the shootings, Trump said he was talking with members of Congress about requiring tougher background checks for gun purchasers, and said in a national address on Aug. 5 that he supported “red flag laws,” which allow law enforcement officials to take guns away from people who authorities determine to be a threat to themselves or others. But by mid-month he seemed to be back-pedaling, saying he was “very, very concerned with the Second Amendment,” adding, “people don’t realize we have very strong background checks right now.” He also said of shootings, “I don’t want people to forget that this is a mental health problem.” However, two days later, Trump said he favored plugging some loopholes in the background check system. 1 Gun-rights lobbyists, most notably the National Rifle Association (NRA), and most congressional Republicans continue to oppose universal background checks, questioning their effectiveness and legality. Many Democrats, meanwhile, say red flag laws alone are not enough to significantly reduce gun violence. 2 In El Paso, 22 people were killed and more than two dozen injured on Aug. 3, when a gunman opened fire at a crowded Walmart with an assault rifle, targeting Mexicans and Mexican-Americans. Patrick Crusius, 21, of Allen, Texas, surrendered to police and was charged with capital murder; he also could face federal hate crime charges after authorities discovered he had posted a white supremacist screed on the “invasion of Hispanics” shortly before the shooting. 3 In Dayton, Connor Betts, 24, opened fire early on Aug. 4 in a popular entertainment district using a .223-caliber rifle, killing his sister and eight others and wounding more than two dozen. Police patrolling the area killed Betts within 30 seconds. 4 The Dayton and El Paso incidents were not the only mass shootings in August. On Aug. 31 a man armed with a military-style rifle killed seven people and injured 23 during a shooting rampage in western Texas. 5 Gun control has long been in the political spotlight, and the issue’s profile rose sharply following the Valentine’s Day 2018 shooting at a high school in Parkland, Fla., that killed 14 students and three others. That shooting led thousands of young people and others — primarily Democrats — to push for new gun control measures. 6 Following the El Paso and Dayton shootings, Sen. John Thune, R-S.D., said he was “confident Congress will be able to find common ground on the so-called red flag issue.” Republican Sen. Lindsey Graham of South Carolina had earlier proposed legislation offering federal grants to help states enact and enforce such laws. Some analysts say passage would represent the most significant gun control measure in 20 years, although Democrats see red flag laws as only a start. 7 The Democratic-controlled House passed two gun control bills in February. One would require federal background checks for all gun sales and transfers, including those sold online and at gun shows; the other would allow a review period of up to 10 days for background checks on firearms purchases. Supporters say the measures would help end the gun epidemic. But a Republican opponent, Rep. Doug Collins of Georgia, said such bill “foolishly” presume that “criminals who flout existing laws will suddenly submit themselves to background checks.” 8 Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., has yet to act on the legislation. On Aug. 8, he said gun measures will be “front and center” when the Senate reconvenes in September after its August recess. 9 Meanwhile, after the shootings more than 200 mayors, including those of El Paso and Dayton, wrote to the Senate, urging senators to return from their summer recess to vote on gun control measures. But McConnell refused, saying the legislation does not have enough support to merit a special session. 10 The Democratic-controlled House Judiciary Committee decided to come back from its summer break a week early to vote on gun control bills that would ban large-capacity ammunition magazines, implement red flag laws and ban those convicted of a hate crime from buying a gun. 11 Rep. Michael R. Turner, a Republican who represents Dayton, said he would support an end to the sale of military-style weapons to civilians — a reversal of his earlier position. “The carnage these military-style weapons are able to produce when available to the wrong people is intolerable,” said Turner, whose daughter and a family friend were across the street from the Dayton shooter when the killings occurred. 12 The Texas and Ohio mass shootings occurred against the backdrop of the 2020 campaign, in which Democratic presidential candidates are focusing on gun control as a signature issue. 13 “If you need a license to drive a car, you should need a license to buy and own a firearm,” Sen. Cory Booker of New Jersey declared at a Democratic candidate debate in June. 14 Jacob D. Charles, executive director of Duke University’s Center for Firearms Law, says the national mood on guns “feels different now. There’s a lot of energy on the Democratic side. They’re talking about guns and regulations in ways that were not politically possible a decade ago.” In another indication that the recent mass shootings may have changed the national mood on gun rights, during the three weeks after the El Paso and Dayton shootings, at least 30 people in 18 states were arrested for making threats about carrying out a mass killing. Some of them were found to have massive arsenals in their homes. Authorities said such copy-cat occurrences often spike after a mass shooting but said the uNPRecedented surge may be due to the public being on alert about such threats and thus more apt to report them. 15 A Quinnipiac University poll in May of nearly 1,100 registered voters found that 61 percent of respondents supported stricter gun control measures. The numbers were higher for certain controls: 94 percent of voters want background checks for all gun buyers, more than three-quarters support gun licensing and nearly two-thirds support a ban on the sale of assault weapons. Immediately after the Parkland shooting, two-thirds of respondents favored stricter gun control, compared with 47 percent in December 2015. 16 According to the most recent figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly 40,000 Americans died from firearms in 2017, the most since 1968. Almost two-thirds were suicides. 17 The growing clamor for gun control comes at a time when the NRA, the nation’s leading proponent of gun rights, is struggling with internal turmoil — including legal troubles, financial misconduct allegations and departures of top staff members — which some observers say could hinder its effectiveness in upcoming battles over gun control. 18 But the NRA remains a potent force in Washington and in statehouses across the country, and it is expected to continue to energize pro-gun rights voters. “Infighting and accusations playing out almost daily in the national media regarding the NRA have not been helpful,” said Chris LaCivita, a Republican political consultant at FP1 Strategies, a campaign consulting firm in Arlington, Va. “Clearly it will have an impact in the NRA’s ability to raise money, which would be used in elections to turn out its membership.” But LaCivita said he believes gun-rights supporters will still turn out strongly in next year’s election. 19 New Activism Student survivors of the Parkland shooting have discussed their frustration with inaction on gun control legislation on TV news programs and in legislative bodies, including a U.S. House committee. Parkland students also spurred a nationwide school walkout the month after the shooting, and survivors organized a national March for Our Lives shortly after that, in which millions of people across the country, including 200,000 in Washington, D.C., took to the streets to protest gun violence. 20 The students “took the story and refused to let it fall off the front pages,” says Adam Winkler, a professor of constitutional law at the University of California, Los Angeles, and expert on gun policy. The movement continues to gain ground because many Americans are weary of mass shootings, he says. This week the Parkland students unveiled their own gun control proposal, called “A Peace Plan for a Safer America,” which among other things would create a national licensing and gun registry, ban assault weapons and high capacity magazines and create a national director of gun violence prevention. 21 Public pressure for stricter gun laws began to build after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in Newtown, Conn., in December 2012, in which 27 people were killed, including 20 first-graders. Since then, 49 people died in a shooting at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, Fla., in 2016, and 58 died in a shooting at a Las Vegas country music festival in 2017, the deadliest mass shooting in U.S. history. 22 Frustration over gun violence is driving young people to the polls in increasing numbers. Before the 2018 midterm elections, Florida saw a surge of voter registrations among 17- to 21-year-olds. More than 35 percent of 18- to 29-year-olds voted nationwide in 2018, up 16 percent from 2014, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. 23 “The student activism that emerged after Parkland tapped into something very deep in the American political psyche and was able to motivate voters in a way that I had not seen voters prioritize this issue,” said U.S. Rep. Katherine Clark, a Massachusetts Democrat. 24 “The biggest change is not about gun reform, it’s how we look at voting,” said Adam Alhanti, a Parkland senior who has worked to help young people around the country register to vote. “We used to think about smoking cigarettes or driving without a curfew or going to a strip club when we turned 18. Now it’s about taking voting seriously.” 25 In the 2018 midterm elections, Democratic challengers advocating stricter gun control measures defeated at least 15 incumbent House Republicans with “A” ratings from the NRA. 26 Gun control groups for the first time outspent the NRA, with noNPRofit organizations such as Everytown for Gun Safety, based in New York City, and the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence, based in Washington, D.C., spending nearly twice as much as the gun-rights group. 27 Gun-rights activists remain passionate. In the wake of a mass shooting at a municipal building this spring that killed 12 in Virginia Beach, Va., Democratic Gov. Ralph Northam ordered a special session in July to discuss gun control measures. But gun-rights advocates, as well as gun control supporters, turned out en masse, and the session abruptly adjourned after 90 minutes. The GOP-controlled General Assembly said it would take up the measures after the November elections, in which all 140 seats are on the ballot. 28 The number of firearm deaths in 2017 rose by more than 1,000 from the previous year, increasing to a rate of 12 per 100,000 people, according to the CDC. It was the third straight annual rise in the firearm death rate, which had held steady through the 2000s and early 2010s. 29 Researchers are studying whether states with stricter gun control laws have fewer gun deaths. A 2019 study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine reviewed firearms laws and gun-related homicide and suicide rates in 10 states from 1991 to 2016. It found that homicide rates fell in states that implemented universal background checks for gun purchases and banned handgun ownership for those who had committed violent misdemeanors. Laws that required police to issue concealed-carry permits to qualified applicants were associated with higher homicide rates. 30 Federal and State Legislation This summer, congressional Democrats introduced bills that would: • Establish a national gun sales database. • Require universal, fingerprint-based background checks for would-be gun buyers. • Provide incentives for state and local governments to require gun purchasers to obtain a license. • Prohibit the dissemination of instructions explaining how to use a 3-D printer to make plastic guns. So far the Senate has not considered any of the measures. 31 After the Parkland shootings, Senate Majority Leader McConnell said he did not think Congress could do much to prevent school shootings. “I don’t think at the federal level there’s much that we can do other than appropriate funds,” he said. “I think it’s basically a local decision.” 32 The city of Washington, D.C., and at least 15 states, including Illinois and New Jersey, have passed red flag laws. 33 A study by the nonpartisan Violence Prevention Research Program at the University of California at Davis found red flag laws may help prevent mass shootings. It found more than 20 cases in which California’s red flag law was used to try to prevent mass shootings. No shootings occurred in those instances. 34 The NRA says red flag laws undermine the right to due process. But Sen. Graham, chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, has expressed support for these measures, saying the Parkland shooting might have been prevented if a red flag law had been in effect in Florida at the time. Florida passed such a law this past spring. 35 States such as New Mexico and Nevada recently enacted laws requiring background checks for all gun sales, and Nevada banned the sale and possession of bump stocks, which enable a semiautomatic rifle to fire faster. Bump stocks were used in the Las Vegas mass shooting. 36 California even passed a law requiring background checks for those wanting to purchase ammunition. Several gun-rights advocates have filed lawsuits to block the measure. 37 On the other hand, Texas is loosening gun restrictions with laws taking effect Sept. 1. These include laws preventing homeowners and landlords from banning firearms on their property and allowing people to carry firearms in houses of worship. Harel Shapira, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Texas who studies the gun-rights movement, told The Washington Post that he doubts the El Paso and Dayton shootings will prompt a rethinking of the laws. Quite the opposite, he said: Those who support gun rights might “double down” and seek even looser gun controls in Texas and elsewhere. “A lot of legislatures are responding to these shootings by saying the way to make our country safer and the correct thing to do is not to restrict access to guns, but actually to make it easier for people to have access,” he said. 38 But Jennifer Baker, who resigned recently as spokeswoman for the NRA’s lobbying arm, said gun-rights groups face a formidable challenge. “For the first time, the gun control groups are well-funded and have … efforts nationwide,” she said. Baker said former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, a billionaire and a vocal advocate for gun control, has provided gun control groups with “an infinite amount of resources,” allowing them “to have a presence in the state capitals … and to really put forth the effort [like] we’ve never seen.” 39 Supreme Court The U.S. Supreme Court, which recognized citizens’ rights to have a gun in their homes for self-defense more than a decade ago, agreed in January to hear a challenge to a New York City law that had allowed residents to take their guns to shooting ranges in the city but not to a second home or shooting range outside the city. To avoid possibly losing the case and jeopardizing other states’ gun control measures, city officials amended the law to relax and allow owners to take their weapons to a home, business or shooting range outside city limits. It is unclear what will happen with the legal challenge. 40 Trevor Burrus, a research fellow at the libertarian Cato Institute in Washington, D.C., says, “The justices might eventually feel compelled to moot this New York case. Some of them might be kind of mad about it. They know there needs to be some kind of guidance from the Supreme Court. This was supposed to be the case [that would do that].” Chronology 2018 November For the first time, gun control advocates outspend the National Rifle Association in national election campaigning.… Democrats gain control of U.S. House, adding at least 15 gun control supporters. December Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announces that gun deaths in 2017 reached almost 40,000, the highest level in decades. 2019 January U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a Second Amendment challenge to a New York City regulation on where gun owners can take their guns, but the city reduces the restrictions before the case is heard. February U.S. House passes two bills expanding background checks for firearm purchases; Senate GOP leaders decline to take up either measure. May Deadliest mass shooting so far this year kills 12 at a municipal building in Virginia Beach, Va. June During the first presidential debate, several Democratic presidential candidates state their plans for gun control, including license requirements to own a firearm and universal background checks. July Republicans shut down a special session of the Virginia Legislature, called by Democratic Gov. Ralph Northam to enact gun control measures after the May shooting, without any debate or discussion. … A gunman kills three at the Gilroy Garlic Festival in California. Authorities say he killed himself during a shootout with police. August Back-to-back shootings in El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio, kill 31 and injure dozens, intensifying calls for gun control legislation. In response, President Trump says he wants “common-sense” gun legislation. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell rejects requests that he bring the Senate back from its summer recess to consider gun control bills; he says the chamber will take up the measures in September. House Judiciary Committee members plan to return to Washington early from summer recess to vote on gun control measures. … At least 30 people in 18 states are arrested for making threats about carrying out a mass killing. … A man armed with a military-style rifle kills seven and injures 23 during a shooting rampage in western Texas. Footnotes [1] Michael Collins et al., “Trump considers tougher background checks for gun buyers after shootings in El Paso and Dayton,” USA Today, Aug. 7, 2019,; John Wagner and Felicia Sonmez, “Trump condemns white supremacy, focuses on combating mental illness over new gun-control measures,” The Washington Post, Aug. 5, 2019,; Annie Karni and Maggie Haberman, “After Lobbying by Gun Rights Advocates, Trump Sounds a Familiar Retreat,” The New York Times, Aug. 19, 2019,; Nicholas Wu, Michael Collins and John Fritze, “Trump reverses again on gun background checks, says he backs them and never told NRA otherwise,” USA Today, Aug. 21, 2019, [2] Josh Dawsey and Seung Min Kim, “Trump’s openness to extensive background checks for gun buys draws warning from NRA,” The Washington Post, Aug. 8, 2019, [3] Brian Todd, Christina Maxouris and Amir Vera, “The El Paso shooting suspect showed no remorse or regret, police say,” CNN, Aug. 6, 2019,; Mitch Smith, Rick Rojas and Campbell Robertson, “Dayton Gunman Had Been Exploring ‘Violent Ideologies,’ Police Say,” The New York Times, Aug. 6, 2019, [4] Mark Osborne, Bill Hutchinson and Christina Carrega, “9 dead, 27 injured in Dayton shooting; suspect’s sister among victims,” ABC News, Aug. 5, 2019, [5] Ben Guarino, “Texas gunman who killed 7 was fired from job on day of rampage,” The Washington Post, Sept. 2, 2019, [6] Laurel Wamsley and Richard Gonzales, “17 People Died in the Parkland Shooting. Here are Their Names,” NPR, Feb. 15, 2018, [7] Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “ ‘Red Flag’ Gun Control Bills Pick Up Momentum With GOP in Congress,” The New York Times, Aug. 6, 2019, [8] Jacob Pramuk, “House Passes Another Bill to Strengthen Gun Background Checks as Trump Pledges to Veto,” CNBC, Feb. 28, 2019, [9] “US shootings: Trump says ‘serious’ talks on gun control under way,” BBC News, Aug. 9, 2019, [10] Lisa Mascaro and Matthew Daly, “McConnell Wants to Consider Gun Background Checks in Fall,” The Associated Press, Aug. 9. 2019, [11] Gabriella Munoz, “House Democrats Eye New Gun Control Provisions, Plan to Hold ‘Military-Style Assault Weapon’ Hearing,” The Washington Times, Aug. 16, 2019, [12] Colby Itkowitz, “GOP Rep. Michael R. Turner of Dayton Backs Assault Weapon Ban, Magazine Limits,” The Washington Post, Aug. 6, 2019, [13] Sabrina Siddiqui, “No More Tiptoeing: 2020 Democrats Put Gun Control at Center of Debate,” The Guardian, Aug. 7, 2019, [14] Veronica Rocha et al., “The first Democratic debate, night 1,” CNN, June 27, 2019, [15] Dayton Jorge L. Ortiz, ‘People are on edge’: Mass violence threats — at least 30 in 18 states — have surged since El Paso,” USA Today, Aug. 22, 2019, [16] “U.S Voter Support For Abortion Is High, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; 94 Percent Back Universal Gun Background Checks,” Quinnipiac University, May 22, 2019,; and “U.S. Support For Gun Control Tops 2-1, Highest Ever, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds,” Quinnipiac University, Feb. 20, 2018, [17] “Firearm Mortality by State,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017,; Sarah Mervosh, “Nearly 40,000 People Died from Guns in U.S. Last Year, Highest in 50 Years,” The New York Times, Dec. 18, 2018,; and Jamie Ducharme, “U.S. Suicide Rates Are the Highest They’ve Been Since World War II,” Time, June 20, 2019, [18] Sara Murray and Veronica Stracqualursi, “Another NRA official leaves organization amid turmoil,” CNN, July 18, 2019, [19] Alex Isenstadt, “NRA meltdown has Trump campaign sweating,” Politico, July 3, 2019, [20] “ ‘Gun Violence Is an Epidemic’: MSD Survivor Testifies on Capitol Hill,” NBC Miami, Feb. 6, 2019,; Margaret Kramer and Jennifer Harlan, “Parkland Shooting: Where Gun Control and School Safety Stand Today,” The New York Times, Feb. 13, 2019,; “How many people attended March for Our Lives? Crowd in D.C. estimated at 200,000,” CBS News, March 25, 2018,; and Vivian Yee and Alan Blinder, “National School Walkout: Thousands Protest Against Gun Violence in U.S.,” The New York Times, March 14, 2018, [21] Jacqueline Alemany and Matt Viser, “Parkland Students Unveil Sweeping Gun Control Proposal and Hope for a Youth Voting Surge in 2020,” The Washington Post, Aug. 21, 2019, [22] “Deadliest Mass Shootings in Modern US History Fast Facts,” CNN, Aug. 19, 2019, [23] Brakkton Booker, “After Parkland, Young Voters Were Galvanized, Activists Vow To ‘Continue To Organize,’ ” NPR, Nov. 8, 2018,; Lois K. Solomon, “As midterms approach, David Hogg and youth organizers make final vote push,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel, Nov. 2, 2018,; and Tara Golshan, “Young people, women, voters in cities: How Democrats won in 2018, by the numbers,” Vox, April 26, 2019, [24] Laura Krantz, “Youth activists push gun control to forefront of 2020 campaign,” The Boston Globe, July 13, 2019, [25] Solomon, op. cit. [26] Hannah Coulter, “Gun control advocates won plenty of victories in 2018. What will 2020 bring?” NBC News, Dec. 12, 2018, [27] Alex Gangitano, “Democrats look to capitalize on turmoil inside NRA,” The Hill, July 23, 2019, [28] Gregory S. Schneider, Laura Vozzella and Antonio Olivo, “Gun debate ends abruptly in Virginia as GOP-controlled legislature adjourns after 90 minutes,” The Washington Post, July 9, 2019, [29] Mervosh, op. cit. [30] Richard Florida and Nicole Javorsky, “The 3 Gun-Control Laws That Work Best in the U.S.,” CityLab, April 5, 2019, [31] Claire Hansen, “Democratic Lawmakers Seek Universal Fingerprint-Based Background Checks for Gun Buyers,” U.S. News & World Report, July 26, 2019,; and Asher Stockler, “Two Major Gun Control Bills Unveiled By Congressional Democrats,” Newsweek, June 13, 2019, [32] Daniel Desrochers, “McConnell says there isn’t much federal government can do about school shootings,” Lexington Herald-Leader, July 3, 2018, [33] Doug Stanglin, “Should guns be seized from those who pose threats? More states saying yes to red flag laws,” USA Today, May 5, 2019, [34] Peter Jamison, “ ‘Red Flag’ Laws May Play Role in Preventing Mass Shootings, Study Finds,” The Washington Post, Aug. 19, 2019, [35] Ibid. [36] Brianna Provenzano, “As the Republican Senate Blocks Reform, States Pass Their Own Gun Control Laws,” Pacific Standard, June 21, 2019, [37] Vandana Ravikumar, “Gun rights advocates sue over California’s ‘absurd’ law requiring background checks for ammo sales,” USA Today, July 25, 2019, [38] Hannah Knowles, “Texas, reeling after El Paso shooting, is about to loosen gun laws,” The Washington Post, Aug. 7, 2019, [39] Tim Mak, “NRA Facing Most Formidable Opposition Yet, a Year after Parkland,” NPR, Feb. 14, 2019, [40] Robert Barnes, “New York eased gun law hopeful Supreme Court would drop Second Amendment case — but that hasn’t happened yet,” The Washington Post, Aug. 11, 2019,; and Adam Liptak, “Fearing Supreme Court Loss, New York Tries to Make Gun Case Vanish,” The New York Times, May 27, 2019, Website: Pro/Con Will wider availability of handguns increase public safety? Pro It is unlikely that the Supreme Court's recent Second Amendment decision will noticeably affect national gun ownership rates, but it could increase levels in the handful of local areas that had previously banned handguns, such as Washington, D.C., and Chicago. It is therefore worth reviewing what the best evidence indicates about the likely effects of changes in gun availability. No one is proposing to legalize the possession or acquisition of guns by convicted criminals, which is currently forbidden in every state. Thus, any weakening of legal restrictions on guns in the foreseeable future is likely to pertain only to those individuals not previously convicted of crimes. This distinction is important because research has consistently indicated that gun possession and use has both violence-increasing and violence-decreasing effects, and that which of these effects dominates depends on whether the guns are possessed or used by criminals or non-criminals. Gun possession among non-criminals has overwhelmingly violence-reducing effects, while gun possession among criminals has mixed effects. Research has unanimously indicated that defensive gun use is effective. Victims who use guns during crimes are less likely to be injured or lose property than those who use other resistance strategies or do not resist at all — and almost always without wounding or killing the criminal. Victim gun use does not provoke offenders into greater violence, nor does it result in offenders taking guns from victims and using them against the victims. Gun ownership may also deter some criminals from even attempting some crimes in the first place, for fear of confronting an armed victim. Criminals interviewed in prison indicate they have at times refrained from committing crimes because they believed a potential victim might have a gun. Likewise, crime rates have dropped substantially after highly publicized instances of prospective victims arming themselves, being trained in gun use or using guns against criminals. Further, burglars in the United States are more careful to avoid residences where the victims are home than burglars in nations with lower gun ownership; burglaries against unoccupied homes cannot result in injury to the residents. Gun availability among non-criminals tends to increase public safety. More guns among non-criminals does provide more guns for criminals to steal, and thus might increase criminal gun levels, but the statistically strongest research indicates that higher overall gun levels have either no net effect on violent-crime rates or mild crime-reducing effects. Con One of the most hotly contested issues in the larger debate on gun control is whether guns in a community have a positive or negative effect on crime. Now, as a result of the Heller decision, the issue may be tested, as gun regulations are challenged on Second Amendment grounds in one jurisdiction after another. If gun regulations are relaxed and more residents of large, crime-prone cities acquire handguns for self-defense, the rates of assault, robbery, and rape will not be noticeably affected. What will be affected is the assailants' choice of weapon. An increase in gun ownership fuels the secondary market by which guns flow to youths and criminals through loans among family and friends, off-the-books sales and theft. Of course, gun prevalence may have other effects as well — if criminals are concerned about encountering an armed victim, they may desist (the "deterrence" argument). But theoretical arguments are not enough to resolve this issue. Fortunately, the empirical evidence is very strong, thanks to the discovery of a new proxy for gun prevalence. It turns out that the percentage of suicides with guns is very highly correlated with household gun ownership rates, both across jurisdictions and over time. That discovery has opened the door for empirical research that was previously hamstrung by the lack of a good measure of local gun prevalence. Now we know with certainty that in areas where more households own guns, young men are more likely to carry guns, and more robberies and assaults are likely to involve guns. And that is not good news. Increased gun use will result in a higher murder rate. When an assailant uses a gun instead of a knife or club, it greatly increases the chance that the victim will die. Guns do not cause violence, but they intensify violence. We have found, using long-term studies in large U.S. counties, that an increase in gun prevalence increases the gun murder rate but has no effect on the non-gun murder rate, so the net result is an increase in the overall murder rate. A 10 percent increase in gun prevalence results in a 1-3 percent increase in murders, all other things equal. We were able to rule out the possibility that this result reflects reverse causation, although we cannot be absolutely sure in the absence of randomized field experiments. Sadly, the Heller decision may provide something akin to a grand experiment with increased gun prevalence. Workcited: "Gun Control." Gale Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2019. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints, Accessed 2 May 2020. In 2017 the United States experienced a record high number of 39,773 firearm-related deaths, as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This number included 23,854 firearm suicides, 14,542 firearm homicides, 553 firearm-related deaths due to legal interventions (such as police shootings) and operations of war, 486 accidental or unintentional firearm-related deaths, and 338 firearm-related deaths in which the motive was undetermined. Children and teens accounted for 3,443 deaths, including over one hundred unintentional deaths. The 2017 total number marked a significant increase from 38,658 firearm-related homicides in 2016. The firearm-related death rate also showed a steady increase from 2014, rising from 10.3 per 100,000 in 2014 to 12.0 per 100,000 in 2017. The gun death rate declined in the 1990s from 15 per 100,000 and remained steady at 10 per 100,000 until 2014. Activists, advocacy groups, and lawmakers have worked toward enacting gun control legislation at the federal and state levels to reduce firearm-related crime and violence. Supporters of gun control seek tighter restrictions on the sale and circulation of firearms. They note the high incidence of gun-related deaths in the United States compared to other countries, as illustrated in a study published by the American Journal of Medicine in 2016, which showed that the United States has more firearm-related homicides and suicides than any other high-income country, with Americans ten times more likely to die by a firearm-related death than residents of twenty-two other developed countries. On the other side of the debate, citizen groups and firearms manufacturers argue that gun control laws threaten their constitutional right to own and bear firearms. Gun rights groups aim to prevent new legislation and, if possible, roll back existing legislation. The National Rifle Association (NRA)—which provides firearm training and safety resources, lobbies on behalf of firearms manufacturers and gun owners, and contributes financially to political campaigns combating gun control—has attracted significant controversy for the political influence it wields. Gun control advocates have accused lawmakers of prioritizing campaign contributions over the safety of their constituents when they accept money from the NRA. Gun control supporters have criticized US lawmakers for their inability to advance effective legislation. These critics often point to the ways in which other countries have responded to acts of mass violence. In March 2019, for example, an Australian terrorist attacked two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, killing fifty-one people and injuring forty-nine. Within one month of the shooting, New Zealand's parliament passed a law banning semiautomatic firearms and parts that can be used to assemble such weapons. The government also instituted a buyback program for owners of these firearms. Many US politicians and activists praised New Zealand's actions on social media, including Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT), who described the legislation as "what real action to stop gun violence looks like." Sidebar: Hide SUPPORT FOR AND OPPOSITION TO BANNING ASSAULT WEAPONS Support • Self-defense and hunting scenarios do not typically require the efficiency provided by automatic weapons and high-capacity ammunition magazines. These weapons have, however, proven themselves effective at injuring and killing large groups of people in mass shootings. • Most Americans support a federal ban on military-style assault bans. For politicians in many jurisdictions, supporting such legislation would reflect the will of the people. • While the accidental discharge of a firearm always carries the risk of injury, the accidental discharge of an automatic weapon can result in greater collateral damage. Opposition • Banning any type of firearm can be interpreted as a violation of the Second Amendment of the US Constitution. • Because federal law forbids the importation of foreign-made assault weapons, all legal sales involve weapons manufactured domestically, helping local economies and encouraging further innovation. • A federal assault weapons ban would have minimal impact on gun deaths, as the majority of gun deaths are self-inflicted and do not involve automatic weapons. THE SECOND AMENDMENT The right to keep and bear arms was added to the US Constitution as part of the Bill of Rights, which was ratified on December 15, 1791. The precise meaning and purpose of the Second Amendment has been a subject of frequent debate. Gun control advocates argue that when the newly founded country adopted the Second Amendment in 1791, each state maintained a militia composed of ordinary citizens who served as part-time soldiers. According to the amendment, these militias were "well regulated"—subject to state requirements concerning training, firearms, and periodic military exercises. Fearing that the federal government would use its standing army to force its will on the states, the authors of the Second Amendment intended to protect the state militias' right to bear arms. According to some gun control supporters, in modern times, the amendment should protect only the states' right to arm their own military forces, including their National Guard units. Gun rights advocates interpret the Second Amendment as the guarantee of a personal right to keep and bear arms. They assert that the amendment protects the general population, who were viewed as part of the general militia at the time of the amendment's drafting, as distinguished from the "select militia," which would have been controlled by the state. Colonial law required every household to possess arms and every male of military age to be ready for military emergencies, bearing his own arms. Therefore, in guaranteeing the arms of each citizen, the amendment simultaneously guaranteed arms for the militia. Gun rights advocates further maintain that the term "right of the people" in the Second Amendment holds the same meaning as it does in the First Amendment, which guarantees such individual liberties as the freedom of religion and freedom of assembly. LEGISLATION AND COURT CASES IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY The US Supreme Court has heard several cases related to the Second Amendment and laws that attempt to regulate it. In 1934 Congress passed the National Firearms Act (NFA), the country's first major federal gun control legislation, which was challenged in the Supreme Court within five years of its passing. The law required the registration of certain firearms, imposed taxes on the sale and manufacture of firearms, and restricted the sale and ownership of high-risk weapons such as machine guns and sawed-off shotguns. The NFA was bolstered by additional regulations provided by the Federal Firearms Act of 1938. The Supreme Court upheld the NFA in United States v. Miller (1939), a case that involved the interstate transportation of an unregistered sawed-off shotgun. The next major piece of federal firearms legislation came in 1968 when Congress passed the Gun Control Act in response to the assassinations of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Senator Robert F. Kennedy. The law ended mail-order sales of all firearms and ammunition and banned the sale of guns to felons, fugitives from justice, illegal drug users, the mentally ill, and those dishonorably discharged from the armed forces. In two other rulings, the Supreme Court upheld New Jersey's strict gun control law in Burton v. Sills (1969) and supported the federal ban on possession of firearms by felons in Lewis v. United States (1980). The Miller ruling set a precedent for the court's interpretation of the Second Amendment. Through the remainder of the twentieth century, lower circuit courts cited the Miller decision in most cases, maintaining that the right to bear arms related to individuals in active, controlled state guard or militia units. Though the Gun Control Act established a foundation for subsequent gun control legislation, its effect was limited due to inconsistent licensing practices and lax enforcement of the law's provisions. The Firearms Owners' Protection Act of 1986 (FOPA) eased many restrictions of the Gun Control Act. Gun rights supporters lauded the law for undoing restrictions regarding where firearms could be sold and who could sell them, but they continued to object to an amendment to the law that forbade the continued manufacture of machine guns for civilian use. In 1989 the administration of President George H. W. Bush announced a permanent ban on importing assault rifles. Restrictions on assault weapons went further in 1994 when the federal government placed a ban on the manufacture and sale of specific models of assault weapons and various duplicates. The 1994 ban expired in 2004 when Congress failed to renew or replace it. The relatively low use of assault weapons before the ban and unreliable police reporting have made it difficult to determine the effect of the ban. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993, which Congress passed as an amendment to the Gun Control Act of 1968, was named in honor of James Brady, the press secretary to President Ronald Reagan who suffered a near-fatal wound during an assassination attempt on the president in 1981. The Brady Act addressed several key concerns of gun control advocates by requiring a five-day waiting period for all handgun sales, during which a background check was to be made on all prospective purchasers. This provision expired in 1998 and was replaced by the National Instant Check System (NICS), a database available for sellers to verify the eligibility of a buyer to possess a firearm. Within the first three years of the passage of the Brady Act, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) reported significant declines in homicides, robberies, and aggravated assaults involving guns. Between 1993, when the law's background checks were implemented, and 2006, gun-related homicides fell by 32 percent. The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence reported that by 2013 the law had prevented over two million firearms sales to ineligible individuals. LEGISLATION IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY In 2008 the Supreme Court ruled in District of Columbia v. Heller that the Second Amendment prohibits the federal government from making it illegal for private individuals to keep loaded handguns in their homes. It was the first Supreme Court decision to explicitly rule that the Second Amendment protects an individual, personal right to keep and bear arms. The case signified a major development in firearms legislation but left many questions unanswered. For example, proponents of an assault rifle ban argue that the decision only applies to handguns, while gun rights advocates contend that the Constitution extends the individual right to all firearms. Gun rights advocates have also used federal courts to challenge state restrictions, such as requirements for issuing permits to carry concealed weapons in public. In 2014, a three-judge panel for the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that California's requirements for receiving such a permit were unconstitutional under the Second Amendment in Peruta v. San Diego. The case was argued a second time, however, in front of a larger panel of judges. The same court reversed its decision in 2016 and ruled that the Constitution did not prohibit such restrictions. Conflicting rulings have led to confusion over the law, which, gun rights advocates argue, requires the Supreme Court to make a definitive ruling. In January 2017, the plaintiffs filed a petition for the case to advance accordingly. The Supreme Court, however, announced in June 2017 that it would not hear the case, allowing California to keep its restrictions in place. In January 2019 gun rights activists praised the Supreme Court's decision to hear New York State Rifle and Pistol Association Inc. v. City of New York, New York, a case that challenged the constitutionality of New York City's law restricting the transport of licensed handguns. To prevent the law from being struck down, New York lawmakers proposed a slight change to its travel restrictions in April 2019. The city filed a motion with the Supreme Court alleging that the change would address the petitioner's complaints. Gun rights advocates, including the NRA, have criticized the proposed change as a tactic intended to delay or discourage the Supreme Court from hearing the case. Lack of agreement on gun control has led to a wide variety of state and local laws regarding licensing and registration of firearms. In California, New Jersey, and Massachusetts, for instance, a permit or license is required to purchase a gun. Laws restricting an individual's ability to carry a concealed firearm also vary from state to state. In Illinois and Utah, for example, a licensed individual may carry a concealed handgun in public, while several states, including Alaska and Vermont, allow individuals to do so without a license. Concealed carry permits are issued in New Jersey at the discretion of the state, which requires gun owners to demonstrate an urgent need when applying for a permit. Many gun rights advocates, including New Jersey governor Chris Christie, have criticized the state's gun laws as too restrictive. In most states, a person who has not been convicted of a felony can receive a permit to carry a loaded and concealed handgun. Representative Richard Hudson (R-NC) introduced the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act to the US House of Representatives in 2015, 2017, and again in 2019. The bill dictates that permission to carry concealed firearms, in any state that allows the practice, would be extended beyond residents to nonresidents as well. The bill has faced significant opposition from gun control advocates. LOOPHOLES IN LEGISLATION Though legislative regulations have had some measurable effect on reducing gun violence in the United States, critics have identified certain loopholes within these laws that may jeopardize public health. These loopholes enable many people to obtain guns who may not otherwise meet the legal requirements to do so. Private collectors, for example, can elude a provision of the Brady Law requiring a background check by purchasing firearms from an unlicensed seller who does not perform them. This provision is often referred to as the "gun show loophole," though these sales can take place elsewhere, including over the internet. A study of gun owners conducted by researchers from Northeastern University and Harvard University in 2015 found that such purchases accounted for about one-fifth of total gun sales among those surveyed. Proponents of allowing unlicensed firearms transfers contend that the provision is primarily used to allow weapons to be inherited or given as gifts. Federal law and more than twenty states allow juveniles to purchase long guns, which include rifles and shotguns, from an unlicensed firearms dealer. Child safety advocates have unsuccessfully campaigned lawmakers to enact legislation at the federal level that would prevent children from accessing guns in the home, such as legislation requiring gun owners to store guns unloaded in a locked location. A study published by the New York Academy of Medicine in 2018 determined that 7 percent of children in the United States (4.6 million) live in a household with access to at least one loaded and unlocked firearm. Additionally, inconsistent reporting and underfunding for NICS has resulted in an insufficient database that lacks substantial data in many categories, especially in non-felony areas such as mental health and domestic violence. Multiple examples of inconsistent reporting have emerged, such as in 2017 after a former member of the US Air Force used a legally purchased firearm to kill twenty-six people at a church in Sutherland Springs, Texas. Following the shooting, the Air Force acknowledged that they had failed to report the shooter's previous military court-martial conviction for domestic violence to civilian authorities. The shooting led Congress to pass the Fix NICS Act of 2017, which President Donald Trump signed into law in March 2018, to penalize federal agencies that do not meet NICS reporting requirements. In February 2019 the US House of Representatives passed two bills aimed at enhancing background checks and reporting. H. R. 8, also known as the Bipartisan Background Checks Act, required private parties to conduct background checks, effectively closing the gun show loophole. H. R. 1112, also known as the Enhanced Background Checks Act, expanded the three-day time period allotted for background checks to be returned to licensed firearm dealers. The bill required dealers to wait between ten and twenty days for a background check to be returned before selling a weapon to a buyer. By doing so, H. R. 1112 would close what gun control supporters have referred to as the Charleston loophole because federal law enforcement has asserted that Dylann Roof, who killed nine people in Charleston, South Carolina, would not have been able to acquire the gun he used had authorities been able to complete its investigation into his background. The loophole allows for a sale after three days regardless of whether a background check was completed. Both bills must pass the Senate to become federal law. EFFORTS UNDER THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION Violent events sensationalized in the media, such as a mass shooting or assassination attempt, often mobilize calls for more stringent firearm restrictions. President Barack Obama led several attempts to enact gun control legislation following a series of tragedies during his time in his office. In response to the 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut, in which twenty first-grade students and six staff members were killed, President Obama introduced a bill that proposed expanding background checks, limiting ammunition capacity, funding gun violence research by the CDC, improving coverage and quality of mental health care, and banning several of the same firearms listed in the assault weapon ban that had expired in 2004. The proposed legislation was defeated in Congress in April 2013 on what the president described as "a pretty shameful day for Washington." Gun rights advocates doubted Obama's sincerity and accused him of politicizing the Sandy Hook tragedy. Members of fringe groups in favor of gun rights, including radio host Alex Jones, promoted offensive conspiracy theories, suggesting that gun control advocates had staged the massacre to advance gun control legislation. Families of Sandy Hook victims have reported ongoing harassment, including death threats, from those who believe the false claims. Several families filed defamation lawsuits against Jones for promoting these theories. In March 2019 Jones delivered a sworn deposition in relation to one of the lawsuits in which the radio host acknowledged that the Sandy Hook shooting did take place. He testified, however, that he continued to doubt the official version. When a married couple killed fourteen people and injured several more in a mass shooting in San Bernardino, California, in December 2015, President Obama again expressed his frustration with the legislative process and issued a series of executive orders that tightened existing gun control laws and called for Congress to take further immediate action. The executive orders expanded background checks to cover firearms sold at gun shows and online; required states to provide the federal government with more information on people disqualified from purchasing guns; hired more federal agents to process the background checks; sought $500 million to improve access to mental health care; and pushed for more "smart-gun technology," which refers to personalized firearms that use technology to prevent a weapon's unauthorized use. Sidebar: Hide CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS • Who was James Brady, and how has his legacy been applied to the debate over gun control? • What loopholes have prevented the implementation of universal background checks? Do you think they should remain open? • Do you think lawmakers should seek advice from victims of gun violence when drafting gun control legislation? Why or why not? DEVELOPMENTS UNDER THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION President Obama's successor Donald Trump campaigned on dismantling Obama's executive orders on gun control. Shortly after taking office, President Trump acted upon his promise, signing a resolution into law in February 2017 that removed a provision that required the Social Security Administration to submit mental health information to NICS. Gun rights advocates and policymakers have sought to expand gun rights under the Trump administration. Following the 2016 presidential election, several states advanced legislation to permit the carrying of a firearm without a license and the carrying of firearms on public university campuses. During President Trump's first year in office, gun violence once again prompted calls to revisit gun control legislation. In June 2017, for example, House majority whip Steve Scalise (R-LA) and three others were injured in an ambush by a single shooter during a congressional baseball practice in Virginia. In addition to condemning the shooting, Democratic lawmakers expressed hope that the event could lead to expanded gun restrictions. Many Republican lawmakers, however, including Scalise, strongly opposed using the incident as a platform for enacting new gun control laws. In October 2017 a shooter located on the thirty-second floor of the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, opened fire on a crowd of concertgoers below, killing fifty-eight people before killing himself. More than 500 people were injured in the attack, which surpassed the 2016 Orlando shooting as the deadliest mass shooting in modern US history. Authorities found twenty-three firearms in the shooter's hotel room, including twelve rifles equipped with a bump fire stock, an accessory that allows a semiautomatic rifle to rapidly expel ammunition like a fully automatic rifle. Without bump fire stocks, which were obtained legally in the case of the Las Vegas shooting, the shooter would not have been able to fire as many shots as quickly. Prior to the incident, most Americans were not familiar with bump fire stocks and began to question whether they should be legally available. Gun control advocates called for the devices to be banned similarly to fully automatic assault weapons. Critics of such a proposal contended that bump stocks are not difficult to create and could be produced on a 3-D printer. The 2018 shooting of fourteen students and three staff members at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, renewed debate over access to assault weapons. In the immediate wake of the shooting, student survivors of the massacre joined other gun control advocates in calling for reform. Students, parents, and members of the community attended a CNN townhall in Sunrise, Florida, where they posed questions to representatives from the NRA, local law enforcement, and local politicians, including Republican senator Marco Rubio, who defended accepting contributions and support from the NRA and its members. Gun control advocates applauded the students' willingness to confront adults for failing to provide them with a safe place to learn. Inspired by the survivors of the Stoneman Douglas shooting, student activists around the country joined them in organizing a national school walkout and the March for Our Lives in Washington, DC, to voice their demands for legislative reform that spring. An estimated 800,000 people demonstrated in the march in DC, and thousands of others marched in over 800 cities across the United States and around the world. As it had done following previous mass shootings, the NRA accused lawmakers and activists of using the tragedy to pursue further gun control legislation. On March 9, 2018, Florida governor Rick Scott signed into law the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Public Safety Act, a move that surprised those on all sides of the gun reform debate, as it marked the first gun control legislation passed in that state in decades. The law raises the minimum age for purchasing a firearm in the state from eighteen to twenty-one, bans the sale or possession of bump stocks, gives law enforcement more latitude to seize weapons from those determined mentally unfit, and provides funding for heightened school security. The Marjory Stoneman Douglas Act also includes a provision for funding a program that would train and arm some teachers on a voluntary basis. Later that same day, the NRA filed a federal lawsuit against the state of Florida, arguing that the new age restriction violates both the second and fourteenth amendments. In April 2019 the Florida Senate passed additional legislation to implement some of the recommendations from the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Public Safety Commission, such as expanding mental health programs and services and allowing trained and certified school employees to carry firearms.

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