Resolved: The United States Federal Government should significantly reform the American Agricultural System. This will help explain what to do? Town Hall 1 : https://youtu.be/HFE4uj6G720 Town Hall 2 : https://youtu.be/NJDvS0PYT-0 Must Write Toulmin Paper: Claim: State what you are trying to prove. Ground: Present evidence for your claim. Warrant: Present an explanation for the Claim. Why is your claim true? How does your claim connect to your evidence. You should have a reference page for this assignment. The Toulmin Paper must relate to the Town Hall Topic. Claim: Banning homework will lead to a real passion for learning Ground: Mary Jane Cera is the academic administrator for the Kino School, a private, nonprofit K – 12 school in Tucson, Arizona, which maintains a no-homework policy across all grades. The purpose of the policy is to make sure learning remains a joy for students, not a second shift of work that impedes social time and creative activity. Cera says that when new students are told there will be no homework assignments, they breathe a sigh of relief. Many proponents of homework argue that life is filled with things we don’t like to do, and that homework teaches self-discipline, time management and other nonacademic life skills. Kohn challenges this popular notion: If kids have no choice in the matter of homework, they’re not really exercising judgment, and are instead losing their sense of autonomy. At the Kino school, Cera says children often choose to take their favorite parts of school home. “A lot of what we see kids doing is continuing to write in journals, practicing music with their friends, and taking experiments home to show their parents,” she says. Anecdotal information from Kino graduates suggests that the early control over their education continues to serve them well into college; they feel better equipped to manage their time and approach professors with questions. Warrant: This evidence clearly indicates that when students are no longer burdened with homework they begin to see school not as a chore but as a vehicle to pursue their interests and passions. This switch in how individuals will perceive education will improve academic scores, attendance, and overall acquisition of knowledge. Works cited. Sorrentino, J. (2013, July 29). The Homework Debate. Education Magazine. Accessed on February 10, 2014. http://www.education.com/magazine/article/The_Homework_Debate/ Town Hall Brief Racial Profiling Introduction: Racial profiling reflects bias actions reinforced by law enforcement based on race, religion, and nationality/ethnicity which has led to violence and unjust accusations amongst minority groups. This has become a controversial issue in our nation, as stated in an article published by The Huffington Post website, in 2011, which displays a chart showing that the NYPD uses force against Blacks and Latinos 6.7% more than whites. It is evident that the police work force exemplifies inefficiency through racial profiling which calls for change and improvement in the training process. By thoroughly conducting proper training for law enforcement, with an emphasis on racial profiling, police officers and authority will reform effectively. Inherency: The inherency is attitudinal and structural. In order to supply change there must be awareness to promote the issue and new laws to improve the justice system. As reported by the Tolerance website accessed on March 26, 2015, “Community members must be empowered with awareness and steps they can take to address profiling or other abuses of police authority when they occur” which emphasizes that citizens should grasp knowledge of racial profiling in order to prevent being targeted. According to an article published by the We Are One America website accessed on March 26, 2015, “Congress should introduce and pass the "End Racial Profiling Act" which would ban racial profiling at the federal, state and local level” this explains that minority groups will continue to be abused without change of policy. Harms Claim 1: Law enforcement authorities result in extreme force when practicing racial profiling. Ground 1A: The Washington Post website, on December 15, 2014, reported “In Garner’s case, for example, police targeted him for the petty crime of selling loose cigarettes — the types of crimes black people are targeted for at higher rates — and then attempted to arrest him with a chokehold, banned by the department [of New York City]. Whatever else we have learned from the recent tragedies of police violence, it is clear that we need comprehensive federal, state and local policies that outlaw racial profiling and rein in police excessive force.” Ground 1B: The Huffington Post website, on December 9, 2014, stated “If we have learned anything from the recent tragic deaths of Garner and Brown, as well as the experiences of numerous other African American victims of police violence going back decades -- from Rodney King to Abner Louima to Amadou Diallo and Tamir Rice -- it is that excessive force and racial profiling are two destructive modes of police misconduct that require concerted, vigilant action to reduce and eliminate.” Warrant: It is clear that patterns of excessive force have been displayed through exercising racial profiling. These unlawful functions ultimately flaw the justice system by targeting citizens based on race and using actions that are banned which emphasis the unnecessary force taken by the law enforcement. Claim 2: Racial profiling creates inefficiency in the justice system. Ground 2A: The New York Civil Liberties Union website, accessed March 26, 2015, claimed “that innocent New Yorkers have been subjected to police stops and street interrogations more than 4 million times since 2002, and that Black and Latino communities continue to be the overwhelming target of these tactics. Nearly nine out of 10 stopped-and-frisked New Yorkers have been completely innocent, according to the NYPD’s own reports.” Ground 2B: “A 2005 report by the Missouri attorney general is testimony to the ineffectiveness of racial profiling. White drivers, pulled over and searched on the basis of suspicious behavior, were found to have drugs or other illegal material 24% of the time. Black drivers pulled over or searched in a manner that reflected a pattern of racial profiling, were found to have drugs or other illegal material 19% of the time. The effectiveness of searches, in Missouri and everywhere else, is reduced--not enhanced--by racial profiling. When racial profiling is used, officers end up wasting their limited time on innocent suspects” as noted by the About News website accessed on March 26, 2015. Warrant: The fact that law enforcement authorities spend time focusing on minority groups, which is a mass inefficiency to the time that they use by practicing racial profiling. This concludes the idea that police officers’ time is valuable because they are meant to protect citizens therefore they should be productive and disregard race as a factor to a crime. Claim 3: Instability in communities is formed through use of racial profiling. Ground 3A: The National Institution of Justice website, January 10, 2013, stated “Racial and ethnic minority perceptions that the police lack lawfulness and legitimacy, based largely on their interactions with the police, can lead to distrust of the police. Distrust of police has serious consequences. It undermines the legitimacy of law enforcement, and without legitimacy police lose their ability and authority to function effectively.” Ground 3B: In an article written by Jasmine Elliot, June 29, 2010, on the ACLU website wrote “Racial profiling erodes trust between law enforcement and its community. As a result, people are less likely to report a crime or work with the police to give information that could apprehend an actual criminal.” Warrant: A community cannot function without trust between the police therefore it creates an unstable environment. Residents begin to fear and mistrust the officers, who exercise racial profiling, and are meant to bring peace. This exhausts cooperation between the people and officers. Plan: Mandate: The policy that will result in a solution requires two steps. The first step is passing the End Racial Profiling Act which will ban use of racial profiling in all levels of the government. Secondly, the policy would include implementing a proper training that highlights bias decisions based on race, ethnicity, religion, and nationality. Agent of Action: United States Federal Congress Agent of Enforcement: Department of Justice Funding: Generates from taxes; percentage cut out of Department of Justice (Depending on number of states that reform; therefore accurate amount is unknown) Advantages: Claim 1: It is constitutionally correct to pass a policy banning the use of racial profiling which appeals to tradition. Ground 1A: The National Motorist Association website, accessed March 26, 2015, stated “The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution prohibits a person from being stopped or detained without evidence that he or she was involved in a crime. This should protect people from being the victims of unfair pretextual traffic stops*. Unfortunately, as incidents of racial profiling were escalating, the United States Supreme Court's interpretation of the Fourth Amendment was becoming less protective of individuals' rights.” Ground 1B: The Find Law website, accessed March 26, 2015, stated “Fourth Amendment – Search and Seizure - The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” Warrant: Based on the United States Constitution, actions taken by law enforcement authorities are unlawfully exercising there powers through racial profiling. Therefore acts should be passed in order to maintain justice and equality; even though we have an amendment that states the “right of the people”, but a law that asserts racial profiling. Claim 2: Establishing law enforcement training that underlines profiling-bias relations will eliminate racial profiling. Ground 2A: Stated by the Here and Now website, August 15, 2014, “police departments can change their relationships with their communities by training their officers to recognize and set aside their biases.” Ground 2B: “Fridell is an associate professor in the department of criminology at the University of South Florida and has developed model curriculums called “Fair and Impartial Policing […] the program is based on the science of bias and has successfully worked in cities around the country” noted by Here and Now website, August 15, 2014. Warrant: As a result of regulating the way law enforcement authorities are trained this will produce an equal perception amongst all races. Disadvantage Claim 1: Providing body cameras to police officers is costly and neglects public privacy. Ground 1A: Matthew Feeney wrote, in an article on the Cato Institute website, on February 12, 2015, “If footage from police body cameras is considered public record then hours of footage of innocent people’s interactions with police officers is potentially available.” Ground 1B: Written in an article by Drew Harwell, on December 3, 2014, in the Washington Post website says “President Obama's call this week to spend $75 million to outfit America’s police departments with body cameras” Warrant: Using body cameras as a solution is inefficient by spending an excessive amount of money in order to make officers do something they should be doing which is monitoring their actions. It also abuses the civilians that are being recorded throughout the day of police officers routine, which invades their privacy by being displayed in the recordings. Conclusion: Law enforcement authorities’ actions reflect the nation as a whole by exercising the right or wrong methods to fulfill their duties. Through affectively promoting what racial profiling is and the side effects of it, the Department of Justice and Congress can execute the plan to eradicate racial profiling in the system. The idea is simple. Target the issue (racial profiling). Then recognize how it hinders the system which includes mistrust in communities, not utilizing police officers’ time efficiently, and the excessive force used by law enforcement on minority groups. Bibliography "Racial Profiling: Face the Truth Campaign." Racial Profiling: Face the Truth Campaign. OneAmerica, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. "Racial Profiling." Racial Profiling. Teaching Tolerance, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. Mathias, Christopher. "NYPD Stop And Frisks: 15 Shocking Facts About A Controversial Program." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 15 May 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. Natarajan, Ranjana. "Comprehensive National Policy That Outlaws Racial Profiling Should Cover State, Local Police." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 9 Dec. 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. "Stop-and-Frisk Campaign: About the Issue." New York City Liberties Union. NYCLU, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. Natarajan, Ranjana. "Racial Profiling Has Destroyed Public Trust in Police. Cops Are Exploiting Our Weak Laws against It." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 15 Dec. 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. Head, Tom. "Arguments Against Racial Profiling." Civil Liberty. About News, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. "Race, Trust and Police Legitimacy." National Institute of Justice. NIJ, 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. Elliott, Jasmine. "Racial Profiling Is Ineffective, Distracting, and Detrimental to Public Safety." American Civil Liberties Union. ACLU, 6 June 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. "The Supreme Court And Racial Profiling." The Supreme Court And Racial Profiling. NMA, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. Hobson, Jeremy, and Robin Young. "Training Police To Put Aside Their Biases." Here & Now. Here & Now, 15 Aug. 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. Feeney, Matthew. "Police Body Cameras Raise Privacy Issues for Cops and the Public." Cato Institute. Cato Institute, 12 Feb. 2015. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. Harwell, Drew. "The Body-camera." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 3 Dec. 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2015.