Student: Stanley

Mid-Term Examination Cultural History Of Modern Korea

Please choose two of the following three questions. The length of each essay should be about 1,500 words each. The deadline for the examination is noon, Tuesday, April 27. Upload your essays to the turnitin by April 27, noon. Make sure to put your essays in a single file, as you can only upload one file. In answering the following questions, please try to make judicious use of all the relevant readings, lectures, and discussions in the class. I expect you to make your own arguments and support them, rather than merely enumerating facts/arguments given by the readings/lectures. While I applaud any efforts at creativity, I expect your essay to be firmly grounded in specific materials from this class. Please provide abbreviated citations when you quote /cite from the readings (example: Lee, “Yi Kwang-su,” p. 39; Kim, “Hyol-ui Nu,” Part 1, p. 39). For citations from Cumings’ Korea’s Place, please indicate the chapter from which you are citing or quoting, as page number is not given in the pdf file uploaded in CCLE. No coversheet or bibliography is necessary. Your essays should be double spaced, 12 point type in a normal font, with one-inch margins. Given that you will have three days to work on this exam, I will not accept any late submissions, unless there is a medical emergency with proper document from medical doctor/facility. If I detect any plagiarism in your essays, I will give you F for the grade. Please see below for a definition of plagiarism. 1) Discuss the concept of “civilization and enlightenment” (Munmyŏng kaehwa) that appeared in the late nineteenth century Korea: its sociopolitical and intellectual context, its relation to nationalism, and Korean intellectuals’ role in it. Please also incorporate in your discussion Kichung Kim’s “Hyol-ui Nu: Korea's First ‘New’ Novel” and Ann Lee’s “The Heartless,” if applicable. Make sure to offer your own critical assessment of its leaders, their views on modernization, their impact on the society, and so on. 2) Based on your reading and the lectures in the class so far, how would you evaluate the divergent paths taken by Korean nationalist to achieve independence from the Japanese colonial regime. How did they differ? And how were these divergent paths related to the political developments immediately after Korea was liberated from Japan? 3) Evaluate the following statement based on your class readings and lectures. Whether you agree or disagree with the statement, you will have to defend your position, based on the readings in the class. Your discussion should consider the developments in the immediate aftermath of 1945, the emergence of two regimes in the Korean peninsula in 1948, and the role of the United States and the former Soviet Union in your response. Also, please include the impact of the Korean war in the post-war South Korea, based on the short stories (such as “The Rainy Spell” and “Scarlet Fingernails”) we have discussed in the class. “The Korean War was civil and revolutionary in character, like Vietnam War, and it originated with the collapse of Japanese imperialism and the national division in 1945. The conflict was fought by political means and with rebellions in 1945-47, through unconventional guerrilla war from 1948 through 1950, and by conventional military assaults along the parallel from May 1949 onward to June 25.” ---------------------------------- “Plagiarism means submitting work as your own that is someone else’s. For example, copying material from a book or other source without acknowledging that the words or ideas are someone else’s and not your own is plagiarism. If you copy an author’s words exactly, treat the passage as a direct quotation and supply the appropriate citation. If you use someone else’s ideas, even if you paraphrase the wording, appropriate credit should be given. You have committed plagiarism if you purchase a term paper or submit a paper as your own that you did not write.” (Barbara G. Davis, Tools for Teaching, p. 300) 03/31 (Pre-1876) A. 8-10 pm on Tuesday evenings for office hours B. Lecture start a. “Opening” of “Hermit Kingdom” i. Began early 15th century ii. Rise of the Ming? 1. Came before Qing iii. Korea’s place 1. Geographically, culturally, and historically iv. Relations between China and Korea 1. Father and son relation a. Or older and younger brother 2. Not a legal tributary system, it was more of a moral one v. Korean is fully autonomous, free to maintain relations with any countries 1. As long as Korea abided by the tributary system b. Tributary system between China and Korea i. China did not interfere with Korea ii. Exchanges of envoys between China and Korea 1. Symbolic and ceremonial iii. Trade was not important; it was incidental iv. Investiture- the ultimate symbol of legitimacy? 1. China provides legitimacy to Korean kingdom 2. Close ties with China a. Korea sent more envoys to China (5 times a year) compared to China (2 times a year) 3. There’s a friggin gate between China and Korea where they meet? c. Pak Che-ga (1750-1815) i. Was a person 1. Representative of a Korean intellectual during this time period 2. Maintained friendships with over 100 Chinese intellectuals 3. Advocated social and economic reforms along the lines of Qing China at the time a. Maintained that Korea should remain loyal to MING China 4. Pak was opposed by pro-Confucian Koreans 5. Korea at this time, Joson Korea 6. Travelogues of Korean envoys in Qing China d. Korean Exclusionism (Korea saw isolation as necessary) i. The location of it most of all (right next to China and Japan) ii. Ambivalence toward Qing China 1. Qing was not Han and the Han saw the Manchu as barbarians. iii. Survival of Ming loyalism iv. Distrust of Japan 1. Japan tried to “open up” Korea and Korea was not having it v. Domestic unrest & spread Christianity 1. vi. A weak monarchy and strong aristocracy (yangban?) 1. The monarchy was weak in the sense that they had to maintain a balance of exercising their power as well as the relationship with the aristocracy. Power was based in support from the aristocracy vii. Rule of the consort clans 1. Ruled by the relative of the Queen’s families a. In-law families from 1800s onward. i. Andong Kim ii. P’ungyang Cho family iii. Andong Kim family iv. Queen Min viii. Changes in yangban status system 1. Increase of “fallen” yangban a. 2. Increase of “ruined” yangban (chanban) a. Everyday lives are no different from peasants or commoners b. Yangban in name only 3. Breaking down of distinctions between legitimate and illegitimate lines of descent a. Usually the first son takes the test to work in the government/ Confucian scholarship b. Way more illegitimate sons than legitimate sons 4. Improved lot of chungin a. Rise of the middle class (not contemporary sense) i. Between aristocrats and commoners ii. Doctors, lawyers, painters of the time iii. Recruited to accompany the envoys to Qing China 1. Exposed to Qing Chinese culture and technology 5. Growing strength of provincial gentry ix. Social problems 1. Social discontent a. Lots of uprising from peasants b. Local corruption added to these problems c. Rigidity of social status system (Chungin were still considered lower than yangban despite being exposed to Qin China more than the yangban?) d. Catholicism was popular with chungin, commoners, and women despite persecutions i. To try and escape the stratification of society at the time x. Tonghak (started as an indigenous religion and became a social movement) 1. Eastern learning in contest with the incoming Westerning learning 2. Appealed to peasants, secondary sons, and fallen yangban 3. Blend of Neo-Confucianism, Christianity, Buddhism, Taosim, and shamanism a. Eclectic (various elements from traditional religions) 4. Korean alternative to Catholicism Became a social movement calling for better living conditions and reforms of corrupt government 5. Founded by Ch’oe Che-u in 1860 a. Son of a remarried widow b. Unity of human with God c. Humankind and Supreme Being as one and same d. Man’s spirit is the same as God e. Serving your fellow man constitutes serving God f. Mysticism xi. Decline of the royal family 1. Queen Min came up twice a. Wife of Gojon 2. King Gojong a. Fuck what’s his name b. Taewon’gun was his father xii. Knock knock, open up 1. A bunch of countries tried to open up Korea to trade 2. Taewon’gun was adamantly against opening up for the safety of Korea a. His policies i. No opening up to the outside and tried to strengthen the power of the monarchy ii. Household tax on everyone iii. Alienated the yangban iv. “Uphold orthodoxy (Korean values), reject heterodoxy (everyone else)” 1. Yi Hango- westerners were considered sub-human 3. Shit was not going well for the countries that opened up to foreign influence so OBVIOUSLY Taewon’gun did not want to open up Korea a. Catholicism was also a threat i. Leaders were originally tolerant but realized that they must squash opposition 4. Foreigners trying to come through Korea a. General Sherman i. GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY 1. Open and trade with the US. a. Korea was like nah, and set the ship on fire b. Caused the 1871 US military expedition to Korea b. French disturbance i. Kwanghwa Island is where foreigners went to try and get Korea to open up 5. Treaty of Kanghwa (Feb. 22, 1876) a. Between Japan and Korea b. Modeled after western unequal treaties i. Extraterritoriality for Japanese in Korea c. Korea is independent and enjoys the same sovereign rights as Japan(?) 4/2 (Korean response to foreign encroachment) (Class announcements) ● Films are available ○ So we watch movies and then react to them? ● Reaction papers ○ 500 word paper ○ Make comments in the context of readings and the lecture ● Breakout rooms for discussion ● Song of Ariran (GOTTA READ IT) ○ Corresponding movie is Assassination ○ Colonial period of Korea ○ Kim San (Chang Chi-rak) ■ Dude got fucking murdered by the Chinese Communist Party despite being a part of the CCP Powerpoint starts A special Korean military corps was formed in 1881, trained by Japanese Horimoto Reijo ● Utilizing western technology as well Korean modernization was fueled by the modernized countries (China, Japan, Russia) trying to control Korea. ● Actually tried to modernize in the face of foreign encroachment by the powers that be as well as the commoners Chrisianity’s Rise ● Institutions of modernization- schools, hospitals ● Empowered women, enabled them to get educated ○ Became doctors, lawyers, teachers, nurses ■ They actually get to do things now Korean modernization ● China and Japan coming in ● Modernization was seen as necessary as a defense mechanism ○ Genuine innovation and a complete break with Confuncian past ■ Self-strengthening movement ● Tried to move away from China’s influence ● Martina Deuchler: top-down approach of the “Confucian gentleman” Imperialism ● China and Japanese bullshit with each other affected Korea as well ● Soldiers’ Riot of 1882 targeted Japanese troops, but Chinese intervened; Taewongun seized and taken to China Chinese interference ● Recommending special advisors for foreign affairs and increasing the possibility of opening trade with Korea Korean reformers ● “Eastern ways, Western machines” ● Some saw Japan as the model to follow for modernization Kapsin Coup (1884) ● The 14-point list of demands (started by intellectuals) ● It failed ○ China came in and stopped that shit ○ Commoners were not informed of what was going on ○ Because the coup failed, reform activities were seen as extensions of these failures ■ Following the Japanese model of modernization was seen as no good. Tonghak uprising (Eastern learning) (1892 began 1894 full force) ● Peasant uprising ● Began as a nativist, religious movement ● The government was corrupt and there was heavy taxation on the peasants so of course the commoners were pissed. ● Mass nationalism ○ It was a political, anti-foreign, and conservative movement ○ This uprising was the beginning for mass nationalism movements in Korea ● Was progressive with demands as well as conservative ideas ○ More rights for people but maintain the monarchy of Choson Korea ■ Corruption was the problem, not the form of government ● Because it was a peasant uprising, the government invited Japan to help deal with this? ○ Chinese sent forces and Japanese sent forces as a response ○ Beginning of Sino-Japanese War of 1894 ■ Major battles were fought on Korea ○ According to the book (page 119) Kojong sought the aid of Li Hung-chang, of China, and China alerted Japan of this as per the rules of the “convention” (I don’t know which convention ■ After the rebellion was quelled, Kojong asked the foreign troops to be removed and while China proposed a mutual draw, Japan was having none of it and the Sino-Japanese War happened because of the shit that proceeded to happen 19th century China-Korea relations ● Informal Empire- overt foreign rule is avoided while economic advantages are secured by unequal legal & institutional arrangements & also by the constant threat of political meddling, and military coercion that would be intolerable in relations to fully sovereign states ○ Nothing China and Japan did to Korea was against international law and treaties ■ Not very cashmoney of them ● 1885-94 Decade of Chinese Dominance ○ Declared Korea was autonomous ● Similarly, with Japan under the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) China lost its claim over Korea ○ Was a huge blow to Qing China ○ Korea was dependent on other countries but simultaneously declared as “autonomous” Kabo reforms (1894-1896) ● Tried to establish Korea’s national independence ● Use of Hangul (modern language) ○ Hangul was not the official language ■ Vulgar script [onmun] (used by women and commoners) becomes the official script ○ Chinese was the written language at the time? ● Reform but not led by Japan ● Establish constitutional monarchy ● Undertake social and educational reforms ○ 660 Reform documents ● Terminate bondage to China ● END MONOPOLY OF PUBLIC OFFICES BY YANGBAN (this was important) ○ Discontinue the exam system that kept the yangban in place Indepence Club (1896) ● Philip Jaisohn and Yun Chiho ● Headed by pro-West, pro-Japan reformers and eventually more Seoul citizens ● Criticized government policies ● Women’s association ● Published “The Independent” ○ In Hangul (vernacular Korean) ■ Spaces in the text to make it easier to read ○ English version was published 3 times a week So Chaepil (Philip Jaishon) (1866-1951) ● Involved with the Independent newspaper ● Fled to Japan in 1884 ● Translation of his name captures the sentiment towards modernity in Korea at the time ○ Modernization could not be avoided and the need to accommodate Euro-centric laws and modernity Another method of Korean modernization and independence (1897) ● Declares itself as the Great Han Empire ● Infrastructural changes ○ Streetcars ○ Ports opening ○ New material culture being developed and introduced ○ Railroads ○ Electric lamps in one of the palaces in Korea ● Growing Japanese interest in Korea ○ Lots of wars, treaties, and alliances ■ Taft-Katsura Agreement (1905) ● US and Japan agree that US remains silent of Japanese takeover of Korea, Japanese would remain silent on US takeover of the Philippines ○ Secret treaties ■ China acknowledged in exchange for Japan’s interest in Korea Russo-Japanese War (1905-05) ● Korea remained neutral but they fought on Korea soil ○ Despite this, with the Treaty of Portsmouth (end of Russo-Japanese war) that Japan had supremacy over Korea. No more involvement with Russia and China. Organization efforts to resist Japanese takeover ● Concern of an ultimate goal of Japanese interest in Korea ● Various efforts made to strengthen Korea ○ Newspapers to distribute information ○ Modern education to educate Koreans ○ Clandestine activities (armed movements to promote independence) ● Protectorate Treaty (1905) ○ Japan takes over Korea’s foreign affairs ○ Mr. Sunshine on Netflix is about this whole affair 4/7 (Colonial Period of Korea) Song of Ariran ● Captures the nationalist movement, through the perspective of Kim San (Chang Chi-Rak) during the Colonial period in Korea ○ Japanese colonialism? ● COMMUNISM not allowed to be canonized in the nationalist movement ○ In the 80s they were allowed in the records as having fought for Korean nationalism March First Movement 1919 ● Seen as the true beginning of the massive national movement (outside of the Tonghak) ● Instigated by the call of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson ○ Call for “self-determination” of colonized country ● Funeral service of Kojong ● Close to 2 million Koreans participated in the call for Korean independence ○ Lasted for two months ○ Non-violent MASS demonstration for independence ● First movement since colonization in 1910 that Koreans came out in massive demonstration ○ 2 million of the 18 million population of Korea ● Aftermath: ○ Not able to gain independence ■ Not able to gain support from the international community, like the US, DESPITE Woodrow Wilson’s call for “self-determination” ○ Participants in the movement had to leave Korea ● Shanghai Provisional Government (SPG): April 1919 ○ Within the provisional government ■ Diplomatic activity in Europe and US ■ Direct military action against Japan ● “Gradualist policy” of training Koreans at home and abroad for independent statehood Cultural Policy of Japanese government ● Japanese government suppressed the uprising of Koreans ○ Had to respond to their response of this uprising on an international scale ○ Thus concessions were made ■ Korean newspapers: okay ■ Korean language journals: ok ○ New, tighter security measures; police doubled, modern equipment purchased, police communications and transportation improved; preventative securities practices instituted. ■ Two Korean newspapers founded during this time Post 1919 Nationalist Movements ● Some freedoms conceded and Koreans used this space to express themselves ○ BUT, there are other, insidious ways to control the Koreans during this time ○ Like more popo and TIGHTER security measures ● Cracks start forming in the national movement ○ Arrest of prominent leaders ○ The leaders were disappointed by the actions of the international community Koreans Abroad ● The nationalist movement happening outside of Korea ● Because Koreans were also living outside of Korea ○ 2 million Koreans living in Manchuria in 1945 ● 7000 Koreans in the United States ○ Political refugees ○ Students ○ Immigrants ○ Mutual Assistant Movement established in San Francisco ■ Aimed for Korea to gain independence ● Koreans living outside of Korea had a tough fucking time because they weren’t exactly privileged in their new locations yet they were able to maintain the nationalist movement wherever they were. Communism in the Far East ● Popular amongst the young and educated at this time (1910s) ○ They were realizing that the international community did not give a shit about the struggles of the colonized ■ Soviet Union was seen as the champion of the people as a result ● Because they supported the liberation movement of the colonized ○ Internationalism ■ Workers in any country share the principal of a global community in the face of the colonizers ● An alternative worldview to what everyone had known up until this point ○ Leninist doctrine became very attractive for the Koreans at this time ● Ultimately it is organization outside of Korea that was fundamental towards the nationalist movement of Korea ● Japan was appealing because it was a different environment (politically and intellectually) and there was a sense of freedom (however constrained it was it was more free than being in Korea) ○ Lots of Korean international students in Japan Emerging Korean Socialist Worldview ● Historical materialism ○ Economic mode of development and change that moves history forward and not a result of divine intervention ○ CHECK THE SLIDE(S) ● Extremely attractive because Korea had a 90% working class (actually peasants as there was no working class) ○ Marxist in Asian countries focused on the peasants and trying to rile up support from them ■ Putting the focus on the success of a country on the peasants and not the ruling class Korean Communist Party in Korea ● Check the slide ● Aims: ○ Complete overthrowing of Japanese imperialist rule and complete independence of Korea (most important) ○ 8 hour labor laws ○ CHECK THE SLIDES 4/9 (Colonial Modernization) ● Director of Assassination was inspired to make the movie after seeing a photo of Nationalist ○ There were actual historical references in the movie ○ ○ The female protagonist was an actual person in history ■ ○ Korean police were hated. Seen as a symbol of Japanese power in Korean ● Colonial modernization ○ Scholars say that Korean colonization ■ Starting to argue that Japanese occupation attempted to modernize (westernize/industrialize) Korea ● Shopping centers and buildings reflect this westernization ○ Yi Sang (wrote Wings) ■ Was a really accomplished writer, designer, architect ● Writing style was extremely experimental ○ “Stream-of-consciousness” style ■ Is a modern style of writing ○ Representative work of Korean modernism ● Infamous poem “Crow’s-Eye View” 1936 ■ Criticism of Yi Sang (became popular in the 1980s for his fierce experimentation) was nonexistent. At least political criticism because he died so young in Japanese prison. Was captured as an “unruly Korean” ○ Yi Wang Su (captured by North Koreans and died during this capture) ■ Mr. Controversial/Father of modern Korean literature and first modern Korean novel ■ Wrote the Declaration of Independence (of Korea) in Japan in 1919 ■ Studies in Japan, exiled to Russia and China, returns to Japan, and then works for the Provisional Government and works for the paper ■ One of the first notable Koreans to change his name to Japanese ■ His life was parallel with colonial history: Japan was prominent in socioeconomic history but absent in intellectual and cultural history. ● Because Yi Kwang-su represented Korean intellectualism and people wanted to maintain the image that Korea maintained their cultural identity during colonization ■ His book Mujong was an immense sensation ● 10,000 copies sold in 1920s Korea ● Ann Lee’s breakdown of this novel ○ Clear language; very casual as if speaking to someone ○ Discarded conventional plot line and focused on interaction ○ Free love, sexual equality, modern marriage were ideas introduced to the many young readers ○ Represented the young readers in 1917 ● HOWEVER in 1922 he was now seen as a COLLABORATOR ○ Reconstruction should replace reform or revolution as a concept ■ Reconstruct national character, economy, environment, religion, morality ● Basically redefining Korean identity ● Educating the young on morality and spirituality is more beneficial that the physical revolution happening in Manchuria ● Said these moral failings were the cause of the other movements failing ■ He was not alone in critiquing Confucian norms ● But he was the most extreme ● Family values and sadaejuui (“rely on the great”) ■ Attention on education- movement to establish a Korean University ● Long-term cultural and education development was necessary to gain independence ■ Separation of state and nation (nation = culture) ● Concept of the cultural root of a nation is separate from the state ● Said “Korean could claim no part in world-cultural history” ○ Korean history is heavily predicated on Chinese history and classics ● Wanted to separate from this and create a wholly Korean identity ● Basically, don’t engage politically, engage culturally ○ Criticism of Yi Kwang-su stated that ■ He was a defeatist ■ If Korean society had no merit why work to transform it ■ Saw this as a rejection of Korean accomplishment ■ Saw it as as a justification of Japanese rule ■ The nationalists deemed that Koreans needed to be mentally and culturally ready to be a part of world history ● Many movements spawned ○ Language movement (cultural) ○ Production movement (economy) ■ Products made by and for Koreans ■ Don’t consume alcoholic products and cigarettes ● Dye their own products ○ An actual cultural movement ■ Failed because there was no political power within Korea. Did not address problems seen by the Korean people ■ Japan co-opted this movement and censored a lot of their writings and prominent Korean intellectuals ■ Koreans couldn’t even participate in the movement 4/14 (Women and Education) ● New Women [sin yosong] (1896 [all of them] to 1950s to 70s) ○ Na Hyesok (painter, poet, activist, founder of Yojagye (World of Women)) ■ From a privileged family. Father was a pastor and goes to Japan to study ■ Marries Kim U-yong, a high-ranking government official in Manchuko ■ Argues that the traditional ideal of women (as a wise mother and a good wife) was a means to enslave women ■ Died penniless in a mental institute ○ Kim Wonju (feminist, founder of magazine New Women) ■ Married and divorced twice ● Applicable to all divorced women, they could not see their children if they were divorced ■ Became a Buddhist monk after ○ Kim Myongsun (author, novelist, poest, journalist) ■ Died penniless in a mental institute ○ New Women was a collective self-ideal for educated women developed by feminist consciousness & challeneged moral system of Confucian patriarchy ■ Based on Western liberal feminism ○ As a discursive construct? ■ The concept was basically only discussed by intellectuals ■ As a symbol of modernity ■ As a way to talk about Korea as they were entering into this point of history ○ Yosong (Women) ■ The word didn’t exist before 1910 and was tied to the family unit rather than the woman as an individual ■ The word highlights the identity of women outside of the family ● How New Women (sin yosong) saw themselves in society (outside of male intellectual discourse) ○ Na Hyesok saw the ideal life of New Women as someone who was able to pursue intellectual interests but also accomplish the tasks expected of them as a woman ■ Someone who could balance the traditional as well as the modern ● Women as humans first rather than as subservient to the family/husband ○ Paradox of colonial education ■ Education allowed women to exist outside of the home and pursue their own desires ■ 1919, the rate of education of Korean children was low <5%. ○ Women are complaining about the type of education was not enough ■ Another group of women complained that women should be focused on practical learning ■ Socialist women, Ho Chongsuk, were critical of education as being too heavily based on the bible and used as a tool of capitalism ○ Secondary education more focused on practical learning and how to fit into society as a woman (wise mother and good wife mentality) ■ After graduating from school, there were not a lot of jobs available that matched their level of education ● Journalists, writers, painters but you had to be pretty damn good to make it as one of these ■ Yun Chi-ho: argued that education for Korean women was actually detrimental because it wasn’t useful for them when they work at home ■ ○ Marriage for New Women ■ Lots of divorces ■ Confucian patriarchal system was still pervasive ■ Yun Simdok ● Rejected the Confucian ideal of marriage ● Has an affair with a married man ○ Resulted in a double suicide ■ Highly educated women not able to meet partners that equal their wants and desires because many of these prospective partners are already married at a young age ○ Criticism of New Women ■ Were blamed for the destabilization of the Confucian norm ● High rate or divorce ● Single women pursuing married men ■ Blamed for pursuing their individual happiness at the cost of the national stability ○ There WERE coalitions for these women to support each other but unfortunately they weren’t successful ● Notes on Assassination and Song of Ariran ○ The Manchurian Incident ■ The generation that experienced the colonization and how pervasive it is still in contemporary Korea ■ Korea was forced to carry out modernization during colonization and the whole situation becomes very nuanced ● The expectation was that it would happen naturally but because it happened during colonization makes it attached to something NOT SO GREAT ● The myth of everyone opposing Japanese colonization was not true ○ Much more nuance and it wasn’t a sweeping united front 4/16 (The last ten years of the Colonial Expansion) ● “Colonial Modernization” ○ Japanese colonization developed the foundation of building an economic infrastructure ■ Like railroads and electricity ○ Post 1945 South Korean capitalism: was it still the colonial period? ■ The idea that Japan was behind modernization of Korea: sprout theory ● Scholars believed Korea would have naturally modernized anyways without Japanese intervention ○ Koreans actively adopted modern institutions and technology ■ Rejecting Japanese colonization was not rejecting modernization ○ Korea and Taiwan was an “agricultural colony” that produced rice for Japan and this lead to a lot of modernization, forced or otherwise ● Choson Ilbo May 9, 1934 ○ Acknowledges industrialization of Korea ■ No clear idea who is doing this industrialization ● The factory and productions exist but who owns these factories? ● The Manchurian Incident 1931 ○ Japanese Kwantung Army instigates a war in Manchuria and establishes Manchukuo as a puppet state ● 1941 around this time ○ Nai-sen Ittai trying to remake Koreans into Japanese ■ Forcing them to change their names too (Name Order of 1939) ■ Use Japanese language ■ Fight for Japanese empire (Oct 1943 compulsory military service) ● Were citizens in name only ● No rights given ■ Obvious loss of Korean identity ● Military Sexual Slavery ○ “Comfort women” implied that it was voluntary ■ It was not ○ These stations were run by military AND commercial enterprises ■ Run by civilians for profit ○ Women were pretty forced into doing this ■ Through coaxing and coercion ○ Korean knew of the existence of sexual slavery but there was international silence about it ■ Even by Koreans (patriarchy, class, government) ■ Only people that were convicted for these crimes were 13 Japanese soldiers but only because they mobilized Dutch women in Indonesia ● In the 1948 Batavia trials ■ Calls for monetary compensation to victims from Japanese government ● Demanded an apology too ● Japan said this was dealt with in the 1965 ROK-Japan Normalization Treaty ○ Infamous because Japan gave South Korean 3 million dollars ● PM Miyazawa apologized in 1992 ○ Not only a problem with Japanese government not apologizing but Korean government and people not siding with the sexual slaves ■ Pervasive Korean norms that blamed the victims instead of the perpetrator lead to this ● Private/corporate Asia Women’s Fund established in 1995 ○ Was not a government policy ● Wednesday Demonstration (1000s demonstrations recorded. Rain or shine) ○ Japanese colonialism ■ Late 1930s, 250,000 Japanese in Korea as bureaucrats, police, garrison soldiers. ■ Vietnam: French colonialism only had 3000 French in government Post 1945 ● Korea is liberated from Japan ● Cold War and Korean Peninsula ○ Washington Conference (1943.3.27) between President Roosevelt and British Foreign PM Churchill ○ Trusteeship ■ The administration or government of a territory by a foreign country under the supervision of the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations ○ Cairo Conference (1943.11.27) was the first time that Korea was brought up as a talking point of the allies ■ “In due course, Korea will become free and independent” ○ Yalta Conference ■ Stalin, Churchill, and US ■ Dealing with Korea ● North and South Korea ○ Did not exist before 1945 ○ US realize their mistake of letting the Soviet Union expand into Korea and wanted to counter this by defining zones according to Soviet Union and American forces (divided August 11th 1945) ■ Was decided for the expediency of dismantling Japanese power and replacing it with the existing superpowers (DEMOCRACY I GUESS) ■ While this was happening, Korea citizens don’t really understand what the hell was going on ● Mostly the rich and influential Koreans knew this was happening (although they didn’t have a part) ■ Landing of US Armed Forces in Inchon in September 8, 1945 ● Landed in Korea and treated as an “enemy territory” ○ The division of Korea took place BEFORE the Korean War in 1950 and was done without ANY Korean consideration ■ South Korea was agriculturally based ■ North Korea was rugged. Not suited for agriculture but had a lot of natural resources ○ September 9th 1945 ■ Japanese flag going down and US flag going up in front of the building that house the Japanese Governor ● Symbolizing the change of foreign power controlling Korea ○ Not really liberated ○ Korea People’s Republic ■ 27 point platform ● Socialist in nature and Liberal Democratic Government ● People believed these to be a natural progression of a formally colonized nation and didn’t really base it on ideology 4/21 (“Liberation” of Korea) ● Announcements (Talking about points brought up in last lecture) ○ 2015 Agreement between South Korea and Japan ■ Agreement over sexual slavery ■ Did not consult the women who were forced into slavery when figuring out assistance programs ■ This agreement was deemed to be inadequate and problematic ■ The South Korean government did not ask for a revision but modified the policies ● South Korean government are providing for these women in addition to what they agreed upon in 2015 ● For diplomatic reasons, South Korea did not ask Japan for a revision of this agreement ○ What happened to the Koreans that changed their names during colonization? ■ Reverted back to their original names after liberation ■ Koreans that didn’t change their names were heavily discriminated against ● Even a monk wasn’t able to get rice because he didn’t change their name ○ Whether nationalists, communists, socialist predicted the situation with North Korea (talking about it this lecture) ● No such thing as North and South Korea ○ Once they were liberated from Japanese colonialism, Korea was divided against their wills by the superpowers (U.S. and Soviet Union ○ There’s still a division ○ Korean War happened BECAUSE of this division and was a brute-force attempt to reunify Korea ● 3 year military government run by the U.S. (US Army Military Government in Korea) ○ September 8, 1945 to August 15, 1948 ○ No local political personalities or groups were able to engage politically within Korea without the consent of the U.S. ○ The U.S. makeshift government was in the southern portion of Korea (below the 38th parallel) ○ Korean policies were conditioned attitudes towards Japanese occupation ○ The American liberators became the new oppressors ● American policy in Korea ○ Soviet Union accepted underground movements compared to American policy ■ This was because the Soviet Union was busy dealing with the new satellite countries in the Soviet Union ■ Koreans in northern Korea pretty much did everything on their own ○ The police was REAL shitty ■ As a result of the revival of colonial government structure for the sake of expediency ■ FTP: the police was seen by the Korean as the main agent of the colonial government of Japan ● Government not dealing with the problems citizens were experiencing ○ Lack of electricity and no plan detailed by government to restore it ■ Koreans who asked for this were brushed off as pro-communist collaborators ■ Americans were concerned that the indigenous political movements in Korea were backed by the Soviet Union ● Believed that Korea didn’t have the means to set up their own government at the time so of course it was Soviet intervention ● Trusteeship ended up being associated with being a traitor and communist ○ Added to the ongoing dividing sentiment of the left and right ○ Soviet Union believed that the 5 year trusteeship would give Korea time to setup a government ○ Joint trusteeship failed ● Separate Election in South Korea May 10, 1948 ● Republic of Korea ○ Syngman Rhee ● Democratic People’s Republic of Korea ○ Kim Il Sung The Two Koreas ● Syngman Rhee ○ Flown in by the U.S. military government to Korea ○ Both leaders spend a majority of their lives outside of Korea ● Kim Il Sung ○ October 1945, addressing the people of Pyongyang ○ Anti-Japanese and Korean liberation ■ Extremely lucky as to not get arrested during the colonization period ● That doesn’t mean he wasn’t noticed by the Japanese government, the reason we even have records on him is because the Japanese government KEPT records on him ● Melded Communism with Nationalism ■ Despite the rhetoric of self-reliance, benefitted from Soviet backing ● North Korean Socialism = Soviet Union Socialism (according to the US?) ○ North Korea’s failure to deal with its history HONESTLY ■ Leading to the mystification of NK ■ No western friends in the West ● Compared to recently decolonized countries like Vietnam ● In China, westerners that knew about Chinese history and culture ● None of this happened in Korea ○ Soviet Union did not set up the government in NK ■ They recognized people’s committees established in NK already ● Did not mean that the North Koreans were able to act with complete autonomy ○ North Korea blended Stalinist and Maoist ideologies ■ Cadres deciding everything and from the masses to the masses (Soviet Union and China respectively) ■ Less class conflicts (between landlords and tenants) ● The landlords fled to South Korea 4/23 (The Korean War) ● Announcements: do the mid-quarter survey ○ 2015 agreement on comfort women ■ We know Japan and Korea’s point of view ■ Is there an American POV? ● A lot of pressure from the US for the two countries to settle this ● US wants the two countries to work together in the face of the growing power of China ● It is US pressure that pushed this agreement ■ The agreement does not mean that there’s a legal precedent for them to take action ● PM Abe only said that he felt remorse over it ● SK government agreed that with this agreement, everything would be resolved and the government would not ask Japan to renegotiate the agreement ● There’s no SK or Japan central consensus about it but there’s a small number of people that protest the comfort women’s plight being brushed aside by both governments ● The Korean War ○ Continuation of The Two Koreas ○ There were more viable people to be chosen as leader than Syngman Rhee ■ But they were all assassinated ■ Yo Unhyong (was assassinated) ● Not Communist or Socialist or Liberal Democratic and was able to blend a lot of ideologies together ○ Kim Il Sung: a guerilla fighter ■ Got rid of his rivals that had Soviet and Chinese ties ■ Goal was to reunite north and south Korea ○ Syngman Rhee ■ First president of South Korea ● Anti-communist ● For the status-quo of the privileged elites ■ Participated in the Independence Club ● Imprisoned for it 1899-1904 ■ Was asked to be the President of Korean People’s Republic ● The group that formed soon after the liberation of Korea from Japan ■ Hard to assess him historically ● Positive appraisals ○ Devoted his life to Korean independence ○ Liberal democracy in SK ○ Anti-communist ● Negative appraisals ○ Outsized ego ○ Schemer in “palace politics” ○ FANATICAL anticommunist and Cold War warrior ■ Prevented Korea from having a unified government ● Didn’t want to negotiate with North Korea ○ Actually on the war now ■ Conventional story is that South Korea was attacked, unprovoked and a complete surprise ● BUT WAS IT? ■ In the American perspective, it was the most destructive war in the 20th century ● People hear about it but no one really knows about it ● M*A*S*H is the only mass-consumed media that was even associated with the Korean War ○ The setting was the Korean war but it was more commentary about the Vietnam war ■ Korean War did not begin in June 25, 1950 and it did not end on July 27, 1953 ● The war is not over. There’s only an armistice treaty ○ No peace treaty signed ○ Prior to the war ■ Lots of skirmishes on the border ● Nearly 10k soldiers killed ■ Syngman Rhee continued to advocate reunification by force ■ Uprisings ● April 3rd Jeju Uprising ○ The USMG’s decision to hold a separate election in SK ○ UN approved that SK could have the election alone ■ Very complicated situation. There’s more but I don’t know it ○ There was a protest against this ■ Jeju islanders decided to resist this but a ton of people ended up dying ■ 1 in 5 or 6 islanders died ○ American involvement in killing a lot of the islanders ○ Innocent citizens were split up as supporters of the government or communist with no basis ● October 19, 1948 Yosu-Sunchon Uprising ○ 6th and 14th regiment mobilized and refused to participate in suppressing Jeju Uprising ○ Executions and indiscriminate imprisoning ● US mop up operation of this civil war ■ NSC-68 document ● Recommended that US use military force to “contain” communist expansionism anywhere it seemed to be occurring, “regardless of intrinsic strategic or economic value of the lands in question” ○ Why the US ended up paying 80% of the French War cost in Vietnam ■ France wanted to pull out but US said they had to keep on fighting ■ The Great Crescent ● Secretary of State Dean Acheson’s January 12th 1950 address at the National Press Club ○ Would not include Korea in US defense ○ Was a misunderstanding? ■ NK thought that the US wouldn’t get involved if they attacked SK ■ Aftermath of the War ● 3.5 million casualties ○ More than half were civilians (10% of Korea’s prewar population) ● 40,000 Americans died in action in Korea ○ 100,000 wounded ■ Was this a civil war? ● Was it international war? ● Bruce Cumings: this conflict was fought initially through political means in 1945-1947 ○ Then it shifted into guerilla war in 1948-1950 ○ Then conventional war in 1950

Budget: $23.00

Due on: April 26, 2020 00:00

Posted: 5 months ago.

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