Due April 28, 2020 by 10pm eastern time Instructions Imagine that you have been tasked with creating a training and development program for midlevel business managers in an organization (you can use your actual organization or one that you create). A midlevel manager is defined as a manager of managers. You have to present your proposed training program to your supervisor. To do this, you must decide on a training model, conduct a needs analysis, write learning objectives, and create the content of the training. For your assignment, you will create a 12- to 14-slide presentation (not counting the title and reference slides) that includes specific information as outlined below. The topic of the training can be any subject relevant to a midlevel manager that we covered in the course, such as how to deliver real-time coaching feedback, how to communicate unfavorable news to employees (e.g., compensation status changes), or how to communicate that a complaint has been made against an employee concerning harassment. If you are unsure that your topic is appropriate, contact your professor for approval. Be sure to include the information below in your PowerPoint presentation. Discuss your selected training process model, and describe why you recommend this model. Explain the steps you would have taken to conduct a needs analysis. State how this training links to the organizational objectives. Provide a sample of two measurable course objectives (from input objectives through impact objectives). Present one of the program’s completed modules. For example, this should be one or two of the objectives that inform or engage the participants in an activity. Be sure to cite any sources used in a reference slide with proper APA style. In addition, a minimum of one academic source that was not used in the Unit III Lesson or listed in required reading must be used, cited, and referenced. If you need assistance, the CSU library staff can help you with your research for this assignment. You may also use the slide notes function to explain slide contents as necessary, but this is not required. Readings The ADDIE development phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/VzYDNWhQWYA The ADDIE implementation phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/q8yky6-P1Uw The ADDIE design phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/BhLIiF9QyTo The ADDIE analysis phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZdv5lrJs4U&list=PL20E84CD77B301A20&index=1 Instructional design industry leader, Melissa Marshall presentation [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/9MRFIcz_AXs The ADDIE evaluation phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/CBoI0wBo4vw Training needs analysis or TNA [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/X3cSAjHDeag Learning and development [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/UCXeCpIrkLY • Expectations for Power Point Presentations in Units IV and V I would like to provide information about what needs to be included in presentations. Please review the rubric prior to submitting any assignment. If you don't know where to find this, please contact me. 1. You need a title slide. 2. You need an overview of the presentation slide (slide after the title slide). This is how you would organize a presentation if you were presenting it at work. 3. You need a summary slide (before the reference slide); same reason as above. 4. Please do not forget to cite on slides where you are writing about something related to what you have read. Please consider each slide a paragraph. You can cite on the slides or in the notes. If you do not cite, you will not get credit for the slide. - Direct quotes should not be used in this presentation as they are not analysis. 5. Remember, all I can evaluate is what you submit, so please consider using notes to explain what you are writing in further detail. Bullets are great and you can use these but then provide more detail in the notes. 6. Graphics - Please include graphics/charts/graphs as this is evaluated in the rubric (quality of the presentation). 7. References - For all references, you need citations. For all citations, you need references. They must match. All must be formatted using APA requirements. Please review the Quick Reference Guide that was posted in the announcements. Please never hesitate to email me with any questions. If you need further clarification about feedback or if you do not agree with any of the feedback, please contact me. My door is always open. UNIT V STUDY GUIDE Learning and Development Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 7. Create a training and development module for mid-level business managers. 7.1 Construct measurable learning objectives. 7.2 Explain how a needs analysis is conducted. 7.3 Recommend a training process model. Reading Assignment In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Hadar, G. (2015). Learning preferences of millennials in a knowledge-based environment. Proceedings of the European Conference On Intellectual Capital, 141-149. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=101604729&site=ehost-live&scope=site Ten steps to effective in-house training. (1983). Training & Development Journal, 37(1), 11. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=9228515&site=ehost-live&scope=site The videos below are required viewing for this unit. They are also listed in the Unit Lesson. Hall, J. (2014, September 22). Instructional design industry leader, Melissa Marshall presentation [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/9MRFIcz_AXs To view the transcript of the video above, click here. Jclarkgardner. (2011, September 25). The ADDIE analysis phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZdv5lrJs4U&list=PL20E84CD77B301A20&index=1 To view the transcript of the video above, click here. Jclarkgardner. (2011, September 25). The ADDIE design phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/BhLIiF9QyTo To view the transcript of the video above, click here. Jclarkgardner. (2011, September 25). The ADDIE development phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/VzYDNWhQWYA To view the transcript of the video above, click here. Jclarkgardner. (2011, October 8). The ADDIE implementation phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/q8yky6-P1Uw To view the transcript of the video above, click here. MHR 6451, Human Resource Management Methods 1 Jclarkgardner. (2011, October 8). The ADDIE evaluation phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/CBoI0wBo4vw To view the transcript of the video above, click here. The video below does not contain any audio other than instrumental background music. All of the information you will need can be found by viewing the video, so it does not include closed captioning and there are no transcripts associated with it. Tobing, H. L. (2013, July 8). Training needs analysis or TNA [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/X3cSAjHDeag Unit Lesson In order to access the following resource, click the link below. College of Business – CSU. (2016, September 1). Learning and development [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/UCXeCpIrkLY To view the transcripts for this video, click here. Certain events seem to stick in our memories all of our lives; they usually occur when we are experiencing high anxiety, such as the first day of a new job. Who can ever forget that first day? Whether it was a good experience or a bad one, we seem to remember it. If you are fortunate, you are still employed by that same organization. Otherwise, you have experienced a few more first days chock-full of positive hopes, a bit of apprehension, and maybe a touch of angst as you walked through that door to your new employee orientation session. Some companies refer to this as onboarding. The military calls it indoctrination. Whatever name the process goes by, it must be acknowledged that the U.S. military is expected to fully accomplish the purpose and objectives of this session. Why? Because the people joining that organization need to know and embrace the values, mission, expectations, rules, procedures, and culture. They have to see where the organization has been, where it is now, and what their roles will be in its future. The importance of this socialization cannot be understated. Reflect on your first days in a new organization; were you welcomed and made to feel like you belonged, or did you have second thoughts about your decision? Planning successful orientation, product, system, functional, or management training and development sessions takes careful analysis and a conscientious proven process. Unit V starts with such a process, which had its beginnings in the U.S. Military. In 1975, Florida State University created the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE) model for the U.S. Army (as cited in Tang-Quick, n.d.). There are several rational steps involved in the ADDIE training process model. In each step of the model, emphasis is placed on the importance of linking the learning process to the organizational strategy as well as analyzing current needs. The first thing that must be determined is if a problem that has been presented will be solved by providing training. All too often, an executive or a high-level manager will comment that productivity has been reduced in an area, sales are down in a certain department, or an individual is not performing; therefore, a training program is needed (Forest, 2014). The worst thing a learning specialist or manager can do is respond to that executive by using training jargon such as follows: “I would like to do a training needs analysis (TNA) to get to the root cause of this issue.” The executive will think you are going to delay getting results. Instead, ask the executive to refer you to someone close to the issue so you can get all of the details. Furthermore, consider this analogy from the book Analyzing Performance Problems or You Really Oughta Wanna: How to Figure Out Why People Aren't Doing What They Should Be, and What to Do About It, which compares solutions to keys and locks: The key must fit in order to open the lock. Therefore, you need the right solution to solve the problem (Mager & Pipe, 1997). Mager and Pipe’s model suggests asking a series of specific questions about the performance or the employee’s behavior. The answers you get will identify the cause of the performance deficiency or the employee behavior, and, if you are lucky, you will have the key to MHR 6451, Human Resource Management Methods 2 fixing the problem. It may turn out to be a non-training issue, and you will be the hero who saves time and money. The following short video further explains TNA: The video below does not contain any audio other than instrumental background music. All of the information you will need can be found by viewing the video, so it does not include closed captioning and there are no transcripts associated with it. Tobing, H. L. (2013, July 8). Training needs analysis or TNA [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/X3cSAjHDeag If the front-end analysis (i.e., TNA) result demonstrates a performance gap, if your firm is rolling out a new system or product, or if your organization is implementing a cultural change initiative that requires all management to become proficient, such as real-time coaching feedback, then your analysis will continue as you identify the input objectives. These are activities that make up the session, program, or project. These parameters are necessary because they define the scope of the project in terms of answering questions about topics such as needed resources, cost of the project, employees involved, scheduling, setting, and locality. It is here that you identify the characteristics of the target audience, identify the critical skills to be taught, and write the measurable learning objectives based on the needs you discovered. The first objectives will be input objectives, usually shared with the sponsors or stakeholders of the project. An example of an input objective might be the following statement: This project must be introduced by July 1 (timing parameter), be within 2% of the sales department’s budget (costs), and be implemented in the Western Region (location). You will continue to develop the other learning objectives: reaction, learning, application, impact, and return-on-investment (ROI) objectives (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). As mentioned above, as early as the analysis phase, you identify the characteristics of the target audience; many organizations typically have employees from several generations. This article indicated below explores the concept of intergenerational communications, which will become more and more important as the older workforce retires and is replaced by millennials. Hadar, G. (2015). Learning preferences of millennials in a knowledge-based environment. Proceedings of The European Conference On Intellectual Capital, 141-149. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=101604729&site=ehost-live&scope=site The ADDIE model begins with an analysis phase. A more detailed overview of this phase can be seen in the following video: Jclarkgardner. (2011, September 25). The ADDIE analysis phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZdv5lrJs4U&list=PL20E84CD77B301A20&index=1 To view the transcript of this video, click here. Reaction objectives are important for three reasons: (1) They explain to the participants why they were selected to attend. It gives them the WIIFM (what’s in it for me) and, therefore, is meant to motivate the participants. (2) They express the necessity for the program, and if it is presented in a logical and rational way, it gains buy-in from the audience. They see that it is appropriate and of value to them and their role within the company. (3) Clearly written reaction objectives measure the first level of success (Level 1), providing meaningful feedback that offers direction to higher levels of accomplishment (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). Reaction objectives are all about perception. The reaction objectives must be clear to ensure that participants engage and want to acquire the knowledge, information, or skills that are required by the program. Try to keep reaction objectives aimed at the content of the program rather than non-content issues, such as the food or hotel service. Here are some examples of reaction objectives where employees answer on a five-point scale; they should rate each statement 4 out of 5. The program content was useful to my position. The program provided me with new information. I will use the techniques I learned from this program (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). MHR 6451, Human Resource Management Methods 3 According to Philips & Philips (2008), learning objectives (Level 2) are focused on performance and written with action verbs, conditions, and criteria. In Mager and Pipe’s (1997) criterion-referenced instruction, learning objectives also include conditions and criteria. See the following short video for a different but similar training process model: Crombie, S. (2013, May 1). Criterion referenced instruction – Robert Mager [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/UHWX1ZPcJHQ To view the transcript of this video, click here. Level 2 objectives must be observed or heard behaviors to demonstrate that learning has occurred; they are clearly worded, specific, and outcome-based. They may contain all three components: performance, condition, and criterion. These are examples of learning objectives: After completing the program, you will be able to achieve a score of 80% or better in 20 minutes on the ADA policy quiz. After completing the meeting, you will be able to develop a business case lite using a given a template. After completing the training, you will be able to successfully complete the system procedures for setting up new clients in 15 minutes (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). The next level of objectives (Level 3) are application objectives; they define the actions employees will take after the program of instruction is over (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). The application objectives should tell them what they are expected to do on the job with the knowledge or skills they learned while in training. This also involves the expectations of their supervisors and peers. Truthfully, while in the classroom or learning environment, a participant will learn a great deal that is not always necessary on a day-to-day basis. For example, a participant may not use all of the steps involved in a transaction to update an account in the new system; there may even be a shortcut allowed back on the job that was not discussed in class. Participants may have passed all of the tests and performed well in the learning environment, but once they get into their work environment, they will need support from their managers and peers. Participants should also have clear application objectives that describe what success will look like back on the job. Being able to use the knowledge, skills, and information learned in class while on the job is also referred to as transfer of training (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). Examples of application objectives are shown below: After the program is completed, employees will use coaching skills daily. After the conference is completed, employees will contact a minimum of 10% of their current customers to offer the new product-line service within two months. After the program is completed, participants will identify 10 ways to increase the department’s level of employee engagement and report these back to their managers within 30 days (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). According to Phillips and Phillips (2008), impact objectives (Level 4) are very important to most senior executives; they represent the business need that required the needs analysis. The key business measures should be impacted by the program; these objectives are often confused with Level 3 objectives, but the way to distinguish between the two levels is to remember that the Level 3 (application) objective is an activity and the outcome or consequence of the activity is Level 4 (impact). For example, this is an activity: Employees will contact a minimum of 10% of their current customers within two months to offer the new product-line service. To achieve an outcome, the employee must perform differently than he or she did before (by offering the new product line service), and the outcome of this activity (improvement in productivity) is a common indicator of a Level 4 impact. Impact objectives consist of measures related to the skills and knowledge learned in the program; they reveal measures that are collected and available straightforwardly, and they tell us what the participants have achieved as a result of the program. Impact objectives involve hard and soft data; the hard data types are focused on output, quality, cost, and time. The soft data is focused on the work environment, customer service, and job satisfaction measures. MHR 6451, Human Resource Management Methods 4 This is an example of impact (Level 4) objectives: After the close of the program, the resulting conditions should be seen: The average number of new accounts that have opened due to the new product-line service should increase from 200 to 250 per month in six months. Absenteeism should be decreased by 15% within the next nine months (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). The highest level of objectives is (Level 5) ROI. The decision to collect data for this level of analysis should be taken seriously; not all training programs and projects require this level of analysis. Today, however, executives are requiring that high profile, expensive, and key strategic programs must be accountable and good investments. To show that the programs or projects are credible, executives are demanding that an ROI calculation is produced. Briefly, ROI converts the data to money, isolates the effects of the project or program, and compares the money to the cost of the project or program (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). A cost-benefit analysis is used in addition to comparing net program benefits to program costs; the comparison is expressed as a percentage when multiplied by 100. Preparing to construct ROI objectives and to evaluate a program at this level must be carefully and deliberately executed. ROI certification is a worthwhile endeavor for any executive or human resource professional (Phillips & Phillips, 2008). A video describing the ROI process and certification is listed in the suggested readings section for this unit. Once most of the objectives for a program are completed, you will begin the design phase of the program, and you will start thinking about how you will assess each objective, select the course format, and create the instructional strategy. Part of your instructional strategy concerns the content presentation. If you are planning to do a PowerPoint presentation, you will want to watch the video below. Hall, J. (2014, September 22). Instructional design industry leader, Melissa Marshall presentation [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/9MRFIcz_AXs To view the transcript of the video above, click here. Also, watch this quick overview of the design phase to see what is included. Jclarkgardner. (2011, September 25). The ADDIE design phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/BhLIiF9QyTo To view the transcript of the video above, click here. The development phase includes several curriculum development activities such as creating a sample and developing the course material based on your design strategy and then conducting a run-through to gain feedback. For an example and more details, view the video below. Jclarkgardner. (2011, September 25). The ADDIE development phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/VzYDNWhQWYA To view the transcript of the video above, click here. You are now at the implementation phase, and there are three parts: training the instructor, preparing the learners, and arranging the learning environment. An overview of the implementation phase is covered in the next short video. Jclarkgardner. (2011, October 8). The ADDIE implementation phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/q8yky6-P1Uw To view the transcript of the video above, click here. The last phase, evaluation, has two types: summative and formative evaluation. The video below discusses this phase and provides examples. Jclarkgardner. (2011, October 8). The ADDIE evaluation phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/CBoI0wBo4vw To view the transcript of the video above, click here. MHR 6451, Human Resource Management Methods 5 You should now be ready to read the instructions and begin the Unit V PowerPoint Presentation assignment. References Forest, E. (2014). The ADDIE model: Instructional design. Retrieved from http://educationaltechnology.net/the-addie-model-instructional-design/ Mager, R. F., & Pipe, P. (1997). Analyzing performance problems or you really oughta wanna: How to figure out why people aren't doing what they should be, and what to do about it. Atlanta, GA: Center for Effective Performance. Phillips, J., & Philips, P. (2008). Beyond learning objectives: Develop measurable objectives that link to the bottom line. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press. Tang-Quick, T. (n.d.). ADDIE instructional design model. Retrieved from http://ged578.pbworks.com/w/page/39335825/ADDIE%20Instructional%20Design%20Model Suggested Reading In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Jiffy Lube has a unique training program called Jiffy Lube University. This article looks at one of the central figures to this program who is the manager of learning and development for Jiffy Lube International. This article presents a great example of a training program for employees. Bates, S. (2016). Giving employees a license to learn. HR Magazine, 61(4), 54-56. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=114923047&site=ehost-live&scope=site The book mentioned in the Unit V Lesson is a classic resource in the field of human resource management, and it is a staple for any HR professional’s library; if you are interested in owning the book, you may research the book on the Internet using the information below. This book provides a step-by-step approach to solving performance issues in an organization. Mager, R. F., & Pipe, P. (1997). Analyzing performance problems: Or, you really oughta wanna – How to figure out why people aren’t doing what they should be, and what to do about it. Atlanta, GA: Center for Effective Performance. More and more training is being developed in an online setting. This article looks at how to use the ADDIE model to develop e-learning. Neal, B. (2011). e-ADDIE! T+D, 65(3), 76-77. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=59411774&site=ehost-live&scope=site The video below contains an interview with Patti Phillips, the President/CEO of the ROI Institute, an organization that helps businesses measure the success of their initiatives and maximize ROI. In the interview, she discusses her thoughts on training. ROI Institute. (2014, January 2). Patti Phillips, the ROI Institute: Return on investment models for training [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/AZeHwZdr83U The relationship between training and the performance of a firm is not always clear. This article aims to show this relationship and why it is important. MHR 6451, Human Resource Management Methods 6 Thang, N. N., Quang, T. & Buyens, D. (2010). The relationship between training and firm performance: A literature review. Research & Practice in Human Resource Management, 18(1), 28-45. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=53338496&site=ehost-live&scope=site Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Check for Understanding: Crossword Puzzle Click here to download a crossword puzzle that reinforces the terms covered in this unit. You can also complete an interactive version of this crossword puzzle by clicking here. MHR 6451, Human Resource Management Methods 7 Learning Preferences of Millennials in a Knowledge-Based Environment Giora Hadar University of Groningen (RuG), The Netherlands email@example.com Abstract: This paper discusses how understanding intergenerational knowledge transfer can improve knowledge transfer in large organizations. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) risks significant loss of institutional human capital as huge numbers of senior controllers retire. To perform their job, air traffic controllers must develop in-depth knowledge, including tacit knowledge typically acquired over many years, so they can quickly make accurate decisions while dealing with the many air traffic control (ATC) situations that arise. The only pool available to replace the retiring controllers is the Millennials. This group, the best educated ever, has its own attitudes toward life, work, and training as well as technology use. Because knowledge transfer and training involve both technology and human interaction, this paper explores not only the role of technology but also that of intergenerational communications in both the training and operational environments of a highly technical workplace. Keywords: knowledge transfer, training, tacit knowledge, mentoring, mobile smart devices, communications 1. Introduction Intergenerational knowledge transfer, especially in a highly technical environment, has not been thoroughly studied by the academic community. This research was undertaken to further understanding of the impact of generational differences on learning and knowledge transfer in such an environment to add fundamental knowledge and create actionable knowledge for complex organizations. By improving understanding of the preferences of younger workers for knowledge transfer approaches, this study has the potential to add new knowledge to knowledge management (KM) and related fields and give organizations insights into how to design knowledge transfer and learning programs for their younger workers. 2. Addressing the problem of knowledge loss Between now and 2021, the FAA risks significant institutional knowledge loss as senior employees retire, a situation particularly acute for air traffic controllers. By October 2015, FAA expects approximately one-third of controllers to reach mandatory retirement age, as depicted in Figure 1 (FAA 2012). As these controllers retire, the agency must quickly hire, train, and integrate new hires into ATC facilities. The need to pass operational knowledge from veteran controllers to the new hires is critical to maintaining the safety of the U.S. airspace. Transferring knowledge from one generation to another can be difficult since younger people acquire knowledge and skills differently from older people and have different attitudes on authority, job stability, and learning. Research has shown that knowledge sharing requires trust, which can be compromised when worldviews differ. Further compounding those issues are the different communication styles of each generation. Table 1 shows the communication styles of each group (Hannam & Yordi, 2011). Table 1: Personal communication Generation Preferred method of communication Boomers Face-to-face Phone calls Personal interaction Structured networking Gen Xers Voicemail Email Casual Direct and immediate Millennials Text messages Collaborative interaction Organizations such as FAA are now looking at solutions to deal with these knowledge loss and knowledge transfer issues. For example, to efficiently accomplish knowledge transfer, organizations may benefit from changing their traditional means of training to accommodate the preferences of their new employees. In ATC, ECIC2015 141 Giora Hadar the new hires belong to the Millennial age group. These younger people who grew up in a digital world have been shown to prefer digital technologies to the more static teaching methods used to train their predecessors. In addition to technology solutions, knowledge transfer and communications issues are also important to address. Once classroom training is completed and the new hires move into FAA facilities for on-the-job training (OJT), generational and age differences can pose challenges, as communications preferences and worldviews vary among the generations. Figure 1: Controller retirement eligibility 2.1 Background In 1981, the FAA hired thousands of air traffic controllers to replace those U.S. President Ronald Reagan fired after they had gone on an illegal strike. This move created the large cohort of controllers that is now retiring. The agency started hiring Gen Xers in 1992 and Millennials in 2005, creating a younger and multigenerational workforce. Lancaster & Stillman (2002) identify these age groups as follows: Boomers, born between 1946 and 1964; Gen Xers, born between 1965 and 1980; and Millennials, born between 1981 and 1999. Because of mandatory age limits for incoming controllers, Millennials are the only pool now available for hiring new workers. Their status as the first generation born into a wired world affects their attitudes at work (Smola & Sutton, 2002). Also called Digital Natives (Prensky, 2001) or the Net (N-) Generation (Tapscott, 1998), Millennials tend to work well in groups and be self-confident and technologically astute, whereas, Gen Xers tend toward independence and a hands-off style. Oblinger & Oblinger (2005) and Reynolds, et al. (2009) describe the three generations in the workplace in Table 2. Table 2: Attributes of the generations Boomers Gen Xers Millennials Description Me generation Latchkey generation Net generation Attributes Optimistic Independent Hopeful Workaholic Skeptical Determined Likes Responsibility Freedom Public activism Work ethic Multitasking Latest technology Can-do attitude Work-life balance Parents Dislikes Laziness Red tape Anything slow Turning 50 Hype Negativity Culturally, Millennials have been a focal point throughout their lives, as youth-oriented media became a major market force in the 1990s (Howe & Strauss, 2000). Although Millennials were catered to from an early age, the authors state, they are cooperative team players, feel close to their parents, respect authority and rules, and ECIC2015 142 Giora Hadar are confident and smart, with aptitude test scores that have risen for every racial and ethnic group. Millennials believe in themselves and the future. Their being pampered has created the belief they are special and a drive to achieve, following their parents’ advice to study, avoid risk, and take advantage of opportunities. According to Schooley, et al. (2009), Millennials stress the importance of work-life balance as a result of seeing their parents work long hours and miss school events. Millennials tend to have less loyalty toward employers than their parents and grandparents did. With important implications for the workplace, Schooley, et al. (2005) find that most Millennials have an “innate” ability to use information technology, are comfortable multitasking while using multiple digital media, and demand interactivity as they construct knowledge. While Millennials often lack a workaholic drive, they compensate by taking advantage of many technologies – often simultaneously – to efficiently perform work. Many of these younger employees have expertise in media, tools, and technology their older colleagues do not (Lancaster & Stillman, 2002). While older employees have access to these tools, it is the younger employees who understand and make use of them to their full potential and regard them as more effective than traditional forms of communicating. This generational difference may profoundly shape workplace knowledge sharing. 2.2 A knowledge transfer challenge One way for FAA to meet its knowledge transfer challenges is to train members of the new cohort in ways they prefer and work best for them. This research supports that concept both in terms of technology use and communications and collaboration strategies. As digital natives who grew up online, Millennials expect to see the technologies they use in their daily lives at work. Their proclivity toward adopting the latest technologies and expertise in playing electronic games affords them skills that can be used advantageously in the workplace and in training. While describing generational preferences for receiving and processing information, Hannam & Yordi (2011) describe the predominant learning style of Millennials as: (1) seeing context and value, (2) searching and exploring with others online in their time and place, (3) connecting to anything, and (4) being tech-savvy. These authors suggest a growing consensus among employers that Millennials need mentoring, which does not mean they have nothing to offer, as they tend to be collaborative, respectful of authority, and eager to learn. 3. Why study ATC? An FAA executive described the seriousness of the agency’s wave of retirements noting, “The institutional knowledge of our employees is the foundation of a healthy organization. People do not show up with it, and it’s not something they find in a book or at orientation, or even during formal OJT. It’s something they acquire after spending many years, maybe decades, with an organization.” ATC’s size, complexity, and culture complicate knowledge transfer. However, this unique work environment is an appropriate study focus because: (1) the need for knowledge transfer is acute due to the large influx of new hires; (2) the operational environment is highly exacting, exacerbating communications issues; (3) training new air traffic controllers is highly intensive and knowledge-based; (4) dependency between mentor and mentee amplifies the significance of intergenerational differences; and (5) known barriers to knowledge transfer exist, for example, OJT instructors and mentors may expect trainees to follow instructions without a rationale or explanation, or they may be reluctant to mentor them at all. 3.1 ATC: A knowledge centric environment An impending knowledge loss is a major concern in a highly knowledge-centric environment. Thus, this research studied the methods used to train new controllers and to create, capture, and transfer knowledge. Controllers must have sufficient tacit knowledge to safely manage air traffic as they gain independence on the job. Operationally, controllers apply only the knowledge required by each situation, referred to as “just-in-time knowledge.” This knowledge subset is shared with aircraft crews and controllers in airport traffic control towers (ATCT), terminal radar control (TRACON) facilities, and en route centers, ensuring a shared understanding of processes and events that is critical, as all controllers must coordinate their work. For example, after takeoff, an ECIC2015 143 Giora Hadar ATCT controller transfers control of the flight to a TRACON controller, who transfers it to potentially multiple en route center controllers until the process is reversed for landing. O’Dell & Hubert’s (2011) assertion that passing tacit knowledge from one person to another is difficult is especially relevant for ATC, which requires controllers to create tacit knowledge through their shared experiences with coworkers, articulate this knowledge, continually acquire new tacit knowledge, and systematize this knowledge so it eventually becomes explicit and available to others. 3.2 ATC and tacit knowledge Because developing tacit knowledge is so important, training new controllers is intensive. Air traffic controllers go through many years of training, mentoring, and experience during which they gain the explicit and tacit knowledge that will lead to the development of expert judgment. A significant amount of knowledge transfer takes place during OJT, involving close interpersonal (and intergenerational) interactions that rely on trust. During this phase, intergenerational differences in communication styles and preferences can affect trust. Senior controllers must trust that the younger controllers are ready to receive their knowledge and use it appropriately. However, anecdotal reports suggest that older OJT instructors may consider the new hires to be unready to fit into their culture and, as a result, may either fail them or demand additional training. On the other hand, communications differences can also impede trust of older controllers by the younger trainees. 4. Central role of communications Communications is central to this research, as ATC involves a high degree of communication to execute the work, train new controllers, and capture and transfer knowledge. In ATC, communications covers many areas, including sharing rules of behavior, regulations, and instructions on how to accomplish the work. Communications is extremely important in both face-to-face and non-face-to-face situations. Controllers usually work in teams in adjacent positions. As they converse with each other, they must be able to communicate clearly with both colleagues and supervisors as well as the pilots of aircraft under their control in diverse situations. Controllers also must learn the proper terminology when conversing with pilots to ensure their instructions are carried out correctly. In addition to mastering two-way communication, controllers must be able to speak English clearly and coherently. They must be able to transmit information to the pilot or their colleagues as well as understand the incoming feedback to make sure their message was understood. Controllers and pilots routinely communicate about the status of flights. This is highly important in situations when unknown variables may be present, such as traffic delays or abruptly changing weather. Sometimes controllers and pilots fail to communicate properly due to the existence of asymmetric information. That situation can lead to a traffic accident such as Asiana Airline flight 214, which crashed at San Francisco International Airport on 6 July 2013. During an investigation by the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board, it was revealed that “the pilot harbored fears about landing safely while relying on manual controls and a visual approach, but did not express them to his fellow crew members because he did not want to fail his training mission and embarrass himself.” See http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/12/asiana-pilot-feared-landing-safely-ntsb-report. Also complicating communications is the reality of different self-interests and perceptions. Controllers must take into account all aircraft in their airspace while pilots are focused mainly on one plane. Both parties develop perceptions based on rapidly evolving information on which they bring to bear their expert knowledge, especially tacit knowledge, and communication skills. In Table 3, Hannam & Yordi (2011) provide insight into the communications preferences of each generation. Table 3: Communication in the multi-generational workplace Generation Suggested ways to communicate Boomers Conversations should be more formal, perhaps over coffee or lunch. Boomers tend to see relationship and business results as intertwined. Ask about mutual interests, e.g., “How is your son doing in college?” Make the conversation participative by getting the other’s input, and link your message to the individual or team vision, mission, and values. Gen Xers Do not waste the person's time. Be direct and straightforward. Avoid corporate-speak. Send an email or leave a voicemail that states clearly what you want, how it will serve you, and when you want it. ECIC2015 144 Giora Hadar Millennials Be positive. Send a text message or meet face-to-face. Tie the message to your personal goals or the goals the team is working toward. Do not be condescending. Avoid criticism and sarcasm. 5. Workplace learning approaches Controllers need a high level of tacit knowledge to be able to form expert judgments (FAA, 2010). FAA’s three-prong approach to ATC training can be related to the work of de Jong & Ferguson-Hessler (1996), who described four facets of tacit knowledge relevant to controller training: situational, conceptual, procedural, and strategic. Trainee controllers obtain procedural and some strategic knowledge from classroom instruction (which includes reading manuals, procedures, and textbooks) at the FAA academy. Using a simulator hones this classroom learning and helps develop conceptual knowledge. Generally, once controllers complete training at the Academy, they acquire and build knowledge by daily on-the-job practice, through mentoring and by working with more experienced controllers over the long-term in their assigned facilities through OJT. OJT is analogous to the relationship between a master craftsman and apprentice in a European guild during the Middle Ages and therefore involves a high degree of mentoring. OJT develops situational knowledge, which new controllers combine with the other three types of tacit knowledge to prepare for working in ATC. 6. Research in the ATC environment Following an extensive literature review, this research identified some assumptions regarding the three generations in the workplace. These assumptions led to the development of the hypotheses, followed by the development of the conceptual model. Following the development of the conceptual model, a survey was developed comprising four sections: the modes (technologies) the three generations use to communicate with their colleagues, each generation’s preferences for methods to gain access to and transfer knowledge, each age group’s preferences for ATC training methods, and demographics. The collected data were analyzed using a modified hypothetical-deductive method, following the cycle of empirical scientific inquiry (de Groot, 1969). Figure 2 shows the conceptual model. In this model, gaining knowledge is the dependent variable. Age groups, communications behavior within groups, learning preferences, and knowledge principles are the independent variables. The moderator is the external influences affecting implementation of KM, namely, U.S. government policies. The independent variables influence the mediator, namely KM, which affects the success of KM implementation. Figure 2: Conceptual model 6.1 Hypotheses and development of the survey questionnaire The research hypothesized that members of the younger generations prefer to use the technologies they rely on in their private lives, such as social media and mobile smart devices, to collaborate and to capture, retrieve, and transfer knowledge in the workplace. ECIC2015 145 Giora Hadar The survey addressed participants’ preferences in three areas — communications, solving a task, and learning — in addition to identifying their demographics. Seven hypotheses were tested: H1. Older air traffic controllers prefer fewer modes of communications and use them less frequently than do younger controllers. H2. Older air traffic controllers search longer for and share less information than do younger controllers. H3. Older air traffic controllers find classroom instruction, instruction materials, and computer simulation less effective than do younger controllers. H4. Older air traffic controllers find laboratory simulation and online databases less effective than do younger controllers. H5. To transfer mission-critical knowledge in the FAA, older air traffic controllers use KM principles less than do younger controllers. H6. Older air traffic controllers catalog and store information about tasks more than do younger controllers. H7. Older controllers disseminate information about tasks less readily than do younger controllers. H1 and H2 were associated with communications behavior within groups. H3 and H4 were associated with learning preferences. H5 through H7 were associated with knowledge principles. All hypotheses were associated with the age groups. The research studied two groups: (1) 208 operational controllers in the agency and (2) 246 instructors and students in four academic institutions conducting ATC education. 6.2 Results of the data analysis The data suggest that Millennials embrace new technologies more strongly than do the older cohorts. In this study, members of the younger generations preferred to use technologies such as social media and mobile smart devices in the workplace and for training. The data also showed that Millennials rely more on knowledge resources (such as expertise locators and knowledge bases) and use them more frequently than do their older colleagues. It also revealed that Millennials exhibit more knowledge-related behaviors compared to Boomers for some activities but not for for others. Some of these results are consistent with other academic findings about Millennials’ preferences and behaviors while others are not. Somewhat surprisingly, Millennials rated some traditional training methods (such as face-to-face time with mentors or OJT instructors and classroom training) more highly than did the Boomers. That result raises questions about the cause of these discrepancies that may be worthy of future study. One possible explanation is that such preferences and behaviors are environment-dependent, for example, they may differ from the norm in a highly technical environment where the mastery of tacit knowledge is essential. 7. Conclusions and recommendations 7.1 Conclusions The survey data confirmed most of the hypotheses. Millennials are more open to new technologies and wish to use mobile smart devices as a part of both life and work. Gen Xers, the transitional generation, show some traits of both Boomers and Millennials. Boomers are the most traditional age group and the slowest to embrace technological changes. The research also confirms that Millennials like to work in teams and share their knowledge. The data analysis led to the following conclusions: Millennials prefer to use newer technologies, including social media and mobile smart devices. Millennials show more knowledge-related behaviors (e.g., locating experts and identifying lessons learned) compared to Boomers in some cases, but for others (e.g., searching for and sharing information) there were no generational differences. ECIC2015 146 Giora Hadar Millennials use more knowledge resources (such as expertise locators and knowledge bases) and do so more frequently than do their older colleagues. Millennials rate some traditional training methods (such as face-to-face time with mentors or OJT instructors and classroom training) more highly than do Boomers. 7.2 Recommendations As a result of this research, organizations should be able to answer the following question: “How should we augment technical training for new employees in ways that appeal to the lifestyle and needs of Millennials?” Because the three generations bring different ideas, challenges, and opportunities to the workplace, executives can benefit from taking these attributes and preferences into account and acknowledging the strength of the diversity they bring to the workplace. This research suggests that organizations consider the following approaches to meet the knowledge sharing, mentoring, and training needs of their incoming Millennial employees: (1) Incorporate interactive serious games into operational training, using mobile smart devices. The deep lessons Millennials have learned from video games may carry enormous value. If managed and reinforced correctly, these lessons have the potential to deliver that value to the workplace. One challenge is finding ways to exploit the unique aspects of serious games to enhance workplace learning. (2) Create communities of practice (COP). Creating COPs would be vital for helping new hires adapt to and quickly learn the needs of the workplace as well as interact with peers and experts. (3) Implement social networks, including microblogging. There is a strong connection between KM and social media. Yates & Paquette (2011) describe how the low- or no-cost social networks that proved a key part of the disaster response in the aftermath of 2010 Haiti earthquake could be of high value to organizations in the areas of lessons learned and best practices through the use of video and photo-sharing Websites. (4) Introduce cross-generational mentoring. Organizations should consider implementing formal mentoring programs that match leaders and managers with the organization’s best employees. This approach would enable new hires to gain valuable face time with the leaders and managers of their choice. Three types of mentoring are recommended: soft-sills, cross-generational, and reverse mentoring. 7.3 The impact of this research This research should have an impact on both the development of organizational KM and training programs and approaches as well as future research in the field. Many of the issues addressed are not specific to the FAA but apply to almost every complex public and private sector organization. Aging populations are changing demographics worldwide in developed countries, with profound effects on the workplace environment. As older employees retire, organizations hire younger employees, creating a multigenerational workplace that faces intergenerational issues as well as potential knowledge loss. Younger employees entering the workplace need to learn organizational culture and their individual jobs as expeditiously as possible to become efficient and effective workers. As the recommendations outlined above show, organizations would benefit from catering to the preferences of their incoming Millennial workers to facilitate their training and integration into the workplace. Designing training and KM programs with these technology preferences in mind will increase efficiency and effectiveness as well as worker morale. Further, Millennials’ strong preferences for KM resources and approaches provide a strong rationale for their implementation in the workplace. The finding of both generational differences and similarities in KM behaviors suggests that further research is warranted to better understand these behaviors and assess their implications in different workplace environments. Follow-on studies could conduct a comparative analysis of organizations with cultural and KM environments that differ from the highly technical ATC environment where the transfer of tacit knowledge is particularly critical. In addition, follow-on studies could use these and subsequent findings about generational ECIC2015 147 Giora Hadar behaviors to study the effectiveness of implementing workplace technology- and knowledge-based programs and approaches in multigenerational workforces. Similarly, Millennials’ preferences for KM resources provide another area for further study. There is a need to better understand these preferences and how to exploit them in work and training environments. Further findings of support for such preferences in various other work environments would support the case for the expansion of KM resources among complex organizations in general as a productive approach to enhancing knowledge transfer for the incoming Millennials. 7.4 Contributions to the KM field The findings of this research create important additions to the field of KM. The younger generations’ preference for using social media and social technologies for work and in training creates a potential for greater ease of knowledge creation, retention, and transfer for those groups. The possibility and likely willingness of Millennials to reverse mentor their older colleagues by sharing their expertise with the newer social media technologies could likewise enhance the ability of Boomers to share their tacit knowledge with their younger colleagues. 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