all this 3 work Research Proposal:This assignment is the first step in your Research Paper, which we will be working on for the rest of the semester. It is important that you choose a topic that is important to you and that has a lot of potential for research. You will choose you own topic for the Research Paper. At this point, you do not need to know your thesis, but you should narrow down to an area of inquiry or your intended course of study and action. Your Proposal should be considered a formal document in which you explain what you will be studying, and what your preliminary ideas are as to that topic’s importance. I will use this document to make sure that you have a topic that is suitable for research writing and help you find the right direction for your work. This essay should be 2-3 pages, double spaced, Times New Roman 12-point font. Annotated Bibliography and Literature Review :An Annotated Bibliography is a working document, meant to help you learn a great deal about your topics and identify sources that will be useful to you as you begin the research process. The bibliography consists of the complete bibliographic documentation in MLA format of ten sources, listed in alphabetical order. After each source you include a short annotation of about 5 sentences that discusses three components. Each annotation should describe what the source contains, explain how you expect to use the source in your Research Paper, and evaluate the credibility of the source. In addition, the Annotated Bibliography requires you to submit a Literature Review. In this short essay, you should put your sources “in conversation” with each other. By this I mean you should talk about how your sources relate to each other. Do they comment on each other explicitly or implicitly? What would the authors think about each other’s points? You can think of this as a short compare and contrast essay about your sources. The Literature Review should be about 2 pages, double spaced, 12 pt. TNR. Research Paper :A researched essay should enter a scholarly conversation, using up-to-date sources and data, and should build on--or argue against—ideas in the field of your topic. An academic research paper should combine the work of others and use one’s own original research and ideas to make a claim. Your essay must do more than explore a topic, it must prove something; your essay must have a thesis and you must argue that it is correct. You are required to have 8 sources, half of which must be articles from the university’s online library databases or the library. The Research Paper must be cited in MLA format. This essay should be a minimum of 8 pages, not counting your works cited page. It should be double spaced, and in Times New Roman, 12 pt. Introduction: Consider using an anecdote or narrative to start out that uses emotional appeals (pathos) to connect with your reader emotionally and highlights shared values. Build common ground with the reader by doing so. Introduce the topic and provide sufficient background information and context to introduce your topic and argument. This will help you start building your ethos or credibility. Thesis: Should state argument and map out the structure of the essay. For instance: “While evidence shows that in certain countries legalizing drugs has reduced the problems of crime and addiction, legalizing drugs in the United States would not work the same way for the following three reasons. First, GIVE REASON ONE. Second, GIVE REASON TWO. Third, GIVE REASON THREE. Solutions that are better suited to addressing the problems associated with drugs and addiction in the United States include: solution one; solution two; solution three. Finally, it is only by recognizing the differences at work in various countries that we can begin to solve this problem.” Supporting Paragraphs: Topic sentence that follows the map that the thesis has set up. Explanation of the topic sentence. Use of evidence (logos) to support your point. Use signal phrases for quotations. Remember to use MLA in-text citation for all quotes, information, statistics, and examples that come from other sources. Analysis of evidence to show how it supports your point. Reiterate the way this point connects back to and supports your thesis. Build your credibility (ethos) by showing you are knowledgeable about conversations about the topic. Also, include the credentials of those you cite in your text if they have high credibility. For example: Dr. Jane Doe, a highly respected neurobiologist at Harvard University, has established “blah blah blah” (56). Be sure to include transitions between supporting paragraphs. Repeat key words from you concluding sentence of one paragraph in the first sentence of your next paragraph. Use transitional phrases like “in addition,” “in contrast,” “further,” “another significant claim is…” “building on the previous point,” etc. In addition to using logos, find ways to appeal to your reader emotionally (pathos). Use anecdotes about or testimonials from individual people, use quotes from people that connect to the reader on an emotional level, and consider incorporating images. Conclusion: Include a one sentence summary of your argument. Go beyond the summary and pose some questions that the essay brings up. These questions do not directly have to relate to your topic but should instead show the broader implications of your argument or the kind of thinking your argument relies on. You don’t have to answer these questions but they help the reader keep thinking about the larger picture that starts with your essay but that the essay helps move the reader beyond. Research Proposal Your research proposal should propose something that at least one person thinks ought to be done. Proposals are recommendations that something be done, often to bring about some kind of change or solve a problem. Your proposal should identify a problem and it should include careful analysis of several possible courses of action in response to the problem. Proposals argue for clear solutions to specific problems, and as with any argument, they build a convincing case that what they recommend should be considered---and perhaps even acted on. The 2-3 page double spaced proposal should include: 1. A clear description of the problem. 2. A clear compelling solution to the problem. 3. Evidence that your solution will address the problem. 4. Acknowledgement of other possible solutions. 5. A statement of what your proposal will accomplish. Annotated Bibliography and 2-page Literature Review Annotated Bibliography: Your annotated bibliography follows the same conventions as an MLA works cited page. However, after each entry for a source you must include about five sentences annotating the source. In these five sentences you must describe the content and or argument of the source, you must explain how you expect to use the source in your research paper, and you must evaluate the credibility of the source. The annotated bibliography should have ten sources on it. Your research paper will have at least eight sources in it. So, some of the sources that appear on your annotated bibliography may not appear in your research paper, and other sources that are not on your annotated bibliography may appear in your research paper. The annotations should be written in complete snetences. When you describe the content and or argument of each source be sure to provide a concise, but thorough discussion of what the source contains. Think of this as a brief summary of the source and be sure to mention the topic, the position, and breadth of the source. If the source includes research or data be sure to mention those findings. When you explain how you expect to use the source in your research paper, you might state that you are using it because it presents an important perspective on your topic, or it includes helpful statistics or research that support your solution, or that it provides an opposing viewpoint that is important to include to boost your credibility and show that you are aware of various views on the topic. You might use an older source to produce important background and or historical context that the reader needs to understand about the topic. You might choose to use a source because it has a great bibliography and or links to other helpful sources. When you discuss the credibility of each source consider when the source was written, by whom, and for what publication. As we have discussed in class, even a Tweet can be used as a credible source as long as you are using it to show this is what people are saying about a current topic. You just need to think about how you are going to use a source in relation to evaluating its credibility. So, while an academic article by a highly respected scholar, published in a peer-reviewed journal seems credible, if it is from 1980 and on media, it may not be credible if you are focusing on social media in 2020. However, if you are discussing the ways media impacts us today versus in 1980 the article would be credible. Credibility can vary based on the context in which you are using a source and based on the way you frame the source. Note: Wikipedia is not a credible source regardless of the context. *For examples and more on annotated bibliographies see pages 500-504 in Everyone’s an Author* 2-Page Literature Review: In this part of the assignment you will write about two pages, double-spaced about how your sources speak to each other. Put your sources “in conversation” with each other. By this I mean you should explain how your sources relate to each other. Do they comment on each other directly or indirectly? An example of a source commenting directly on another source is when one source explicitly refers to the author of another source that you are using. An indirect comment means that one source discusses the ideas or argument of another of your sources, but does so without mentioning a specific author or article. Include what the authors would think about each other’s points. You also want to make sure that in your literature review you address ways your sources connect with each other, and work together to provide thorough background of the topic. Be careful to include differing positions on the topic. In terms of organization, you probably do not want to compare every source to every other source. This kind of organization is unwieldy and not the most effective. Think about how the sources relate to one another logically. Do they follow a clear progression that makes a chronological organization most logical? Do they group by theme? By the authors’ perspectives? By research methods? By trends in the research? For instance, you might group a scholarly article that makes a particular argument with a personal narrative that supports that argument and with a source that has data and statistics that support the argument. Or, you might choose to group three sources that each express a different perspective on the topic together and explain how the differences are important to one’s full understanding of the conversation surrounding the topic. There is no one correct organizational structure. I do suggest avoiding going through the sources one by one. You want to highlight the ways the sources relate to each other, and grouping them provides a good way to highlight their relationships with each other.